Russian Gemstones Encyclopedia

Vladimir Bukanov. Russian Gemstones Encyclopedia



GARNETS group (Granats—Grenats—Гранаты) (Magnus A. 1193-1280), from Lat. “granatum”, pomegranate, alluding to the resemblance of the mineral to the seeds of that fruit in color and shape. It’s known from antiquity.

Description. The group of minerals, class of silicates, subclass of orthosilicates. Garnets are known in two isomorphic rows of constant mixing: aluminum garnets – pyralspites: pyrope, almandine, spessartine and calcium garnets – ugrandites: uvarovite, grossular, andradite. Inside these subgroups there is broad isomorphism but between the subgroups isomorphism exists in a narrow scale. Garnets are widespread and they are often playing the role of rock-forming minerals in many decorative metamorphic rocks. The shape of their crystals is usually isometric; the size varies in a broad scale. They are found, alas, well as joint crystals, crusts and solid grain masses, not often there are inclusions of other minerals. Garnets have different colors except blue. Hardness is 6.5-7.5. Cleavage indistinct. Glass luster. Cubic system. From non-transparent to transparent. Gem-quality fragments usually are in the transparent varieties of noble garnet. Sometimes they display the alexandrite effect of color – alexandrite garnet, which depends on the admixtures of chromium, vanadium and iron (Fe3+), and in the cut stones – asterism in star garnet and the effect of cat’s-eye garnet cat’s-eye. Garnets are formed in magmatic rocks, in the process of contact metasomatism and metamorphism; also they are found in pegmatites and hydrothermal veins. Because of high hardness they are saved well under weathering; they are extracted mainly at the placers.

Pyrope (Pyrop—Pyrope—Пироп) (Werner, A.G. 1803), from Gk. “pyropos”, fire-like, alluding to its characteristic red color. Aluminum garnet – Mg3Al2[SiO4]3, magnesia member of the isomorphic row pyrope – spessartine. Density 3.6-3.8. Pyrope is represented usually as mixtures with almandine or spessartine. It is found as well-formed crystals or round grains not more than 0.5 cm., rarely – up to 3 cm. in cross-section. Ruby-red to purple transparent pyrope with brilliant faceting is called noble garnet. Thick rose variety of almandine-pyrope is called rhodolite or rose garnet. Orange-red and brown-red spessartine-pyrope has trade name vermeil garnet. Cut pyrope can possess asterism and the effect of cat’s-eye. It is very popular, that’s why it has so many trade names, which is connected with the desire to give pyrope out as a more precious gem ~ ruby: Adelaide ~, American ~, Colorado ~, Czech ~, fashoda ~, Montana ~, pyrope ~, rock ~; as well as Arizona spinel and Kandy spinel.

Deposits. Pyrope is found in kimberlites, eruptive breccias, at contact-metasomatic and metamorphic deposits and at the placers. There are no deposits with industrial volumes of pyrope in Russia. In Yakutia, pyrope is extracted as additional material from kimberlitic diamond pipes. Near the diamond pipe Mir the placers were formed in the Inreleekh River Valley, where pyrope amount up to 50 kg.\m3 . The size of some crystals at these placers is usually not more than 3 cm.; sometimes they have the alexandrite effect. In the Minussinskiy depression, Krasnoyarsk Region, there is Tergesh pipe with pyrope. In the Dzhida Dist. of Buryatia Rep. pyropes up to 4 cm. in size are found in alkali-basalts of the Bartoy volcano group. In the Irkutsk Region, mega crystals of pyrope were found in pyrope-spinel rocks of the Vitim Upland. In the Ukraine and in Crimea, there are such interesting ornamental rocks as granodiorites with engraved red grains of garnet of pyrope-almandine type, from the Alushta Dist. This greenish-gray rock is called trout stone because of the similarity of its color with tone of Crimea trout. In Central Mongolia, on the Hangai Uplands, the deposit of pyrope Shavaryn-Tsaram was opened in 1973. It is linked with alkali-basaltoids as a pipe with a placer of pyrope, which was formed in the process of weathering. The size of the largest pyrop’s crystals is up to 10 cm., and weight is up to 700 gm. The similar volcanic pipes with basaltoide eruptive breccia and pyrope placers are situated also in China, near Donghai in the Jiangsu Prov.

In Europe, the biggest pyrop’s deposits at the Bohemia, Czech Rep. was formed in the process on weathering of volcanic pipes of basalt breccias. There are more than 20 pipes in that region with rich content of pyropes or Bohemian garnet. They have been exploited from time to time since the 13th cent.. The most interesting is the pipe Linhorka and placers near Tfiebenice, which are linked with it. Nowadays, the size of pyropes in those placers is not more than 0.5 cm. According the legends, two unique crystals were found there: the first one – 468.5 ct., 18x27x33 mm. in size; the second one – as large as a dove’s egg, 633.4 ct. Besides, pyrope spessartine was found in eclogites of Norway, at the Ottaray deposit, where it had the alexandrite effect. In Italy, pyropes crystals up to 25 cm. in size at the Dora Maira massif, near Cuneo, Piedmont, were found.

In South Africa, since the opening of the diamond deposits Premier and Kimberley, brownish-red with violet tone pyrope – Cape garnet or Cape ruby, enough good for cut, has been extracted in a large volume as an additional rock material, mainly at the placers. Besides, pyrope is extracted in Nigeria, in the Panyam locality, of Jos Plateau; and in Sudan, dark red to brown-red pyrope is called Fashoda garnet or fashoda. In Lesotho and Congo (form. Zaire), orange-red and brown-red spessartine-pyrope is extracted at the diamond placers, too. In Zimbabwe, rhodolite at the Beitbridge deposit is extracted; similar deposit is also in Kenya. In Tanzania, pyrope is extracted at the Shinyanga deposit, rich placers of orange spessartine-pyrope with violet tone in the Tunduru and Songea region are known, as well as on the Umba River. It received the local name Malayan garnet, East-African garnet or umbalite. Admixture of vanadium is typical for it, as well as the connected with it alexandrite effect and changing of the color from greenish-gray or bluish-lilac during the day to red in the artificial light. Alongside, the asterism was observed, which depended on inclusions of needles of rutile and plates of ilmenite. On Madagascar, there are a dozen deposits of rhodolite. In the south of the island, near Bekily, the deposit of pyrope-spessartine with the alexandrite effect was found – it changed the color from bluish-green during the day to purple in the artificial light. Among the countries of South-Eastern Asia the leader in the extraction of rhodolite is Sri Lanka, where placers of Ratnapura are exploited. Quite local rhodolite has parallel-fibrous inclusions of rutile, and sometimes gives in cabochon the effect of cat’s-eye. The same inclusions can produce the effect of asterism in star pyrope and star rhodolite in the form of four-radial star. Another one source of rhodolite in this region is India, where it is extracted at the deposit, near Chennai (form. Madras), and in the Orissa State. That’s why it is called Orissa garnet, according the place of the finding. Since 1993, rhodolite is extracted in Myanmar (Burma), at the placers along the Möng Hsu River in the east Shan Prov. In Australia, in New South Wales pyrope is extracted from basaltoide volcanic breccia at the deposits Ruby-Hill, near Bingara. In Queensland, it is extracted as an additional material with diamond in the of Anakie region.

At the American continent deposits of pyrope are known in the U.S.A., in Brazil and in the Argentina. In the early 20th cent., pyropes from the western states of Arizona, Utah, and New Mexico became popular throughout the U.S.A., they were called Arizona ruby. In Arizona, dark red pyrope, which was enough good for cut, was extracted from the kimberlitic pipe Bewell Park, near Fort Defiance. The size of pyropes there was mainly about 0.5 cm., rarely up to 3 cm. The most part of them had inclusions of rutile, diopside and magnetite. Cut gems from them are usually up to 1.5 ct., rarely up to 8 ct. In Utah, aeolian placers of pyrope in the San Juan Co. are known, they were formed in the process of weathering of kimberlitic breccia. In North Carolina, in the Small Tennessee River basin the placer-deposit of rhodolite Covey Creek was opened in 1883, where cut gems were up to 13 ct.

Synonyms. Group name of red garnets: Amethystus, obs. | Anthrax, from Gk. “coal”, obs. name of red gems | Becheta – anc. Russ. name of non-expensive red gems. In antique time it is usual garnet. | Carbuncle (karfunkel) – from Latin “carbunculus” – “amber”, obs., general name of red gems | Chervec, anc. Russ. | Garamanticus, obs. | Red garnet | Australian ruby | Carthage’s ruby, in a place of trade, obs.

Pyrope – Brown rock chert | Alexandrite garnet | Czech garnet | Red garnet | Guarnaccio, Ital. | Malaya, from deposits in Africa | Chrome-pyrope | Crimson rhodolite | Rhodomacon, on the color and the place of finding near Mekona, Zimbabwe | ~ ruby: Arizona ~, on the place of finding in Arizona; Bohemian ~, on the place of finding in Bohemia (historical region), Czech Rep.; Cape ~, on the place of finding in Cape Prov., South Africa; Ely ~, on the place of finding in Ely-Ness, Scotland; Montana ~, on the place of finding in Montana, the U.S.A.; South African ~, from the deposit Kimberley, South Africa | Arizona spinel | Fire stone | Umbalite, on the place of finding on the river Umba, Tanzania | Vogesit, from the Vogesian Mts., French.

Legends. Pyrope is the stone of the planet Mars and the natural force of fire. In the ancient times people believed that it gives light in the night. That’s why it was called carbuncle, from the Latin word “coal.” As a talisman, it produces passion, live forces and energy. In Ancient Rome, warriors took it with them. It is a lucky stone for active people, who were born under the zodiac signs of Leo, Sagittarius and Taurus. As an amulet, it takes away the impulses of anxiety, strengthens the heart and the memory and helps to avoid incidents during travels.

Similarity. Pyrope has a similarity with tourmaline, spinel and ruby; from the first two stones it differs because of the less density, from the third one (ruby) – because of the less hardness.

Almandine (Almandin—Almandin—Альмандин) (Agricola, 1546). Corruption of Lat. “alabandine”, after Alabanda, a town in Caria, an ancient country south of the Meander River in SWAsia Minor, from whence came the alabandian carbuncule mentioned by Pliny the Elder, 77. Aluminium garnet – Fe32+Al2[SiO4]3, ferrous member of isomorphic row pyrope-spessartine. Density 3.9-4.3. It is found as well-formed crystals or round grains up to 5 cm. in cross-section. Color is violet-red, more rare – thick red and brown-red. From transparent to non-transparent; with a great amount of mineral inclusions. Among these inclusions are needles of rutile, crystals of zircon, hornblende, apatite and others. Inclusions of fibrous amphiboles in cabochon can produce the chatoyancy. Violet-red variety is called noble garnet, red with brown tone – falun, and common garnet is usually thick red to black. In star almandine the asterism was observed with four- and sometimes with six-radial star.

Deposits. Almandine is the widespread garnet. The most often it is found in effusive rocks, pegmatites, and metamorphic rocks, more rare – in hydrothermal veins and in placers. In Russia, gem-quality almandine are known in Karelia, in mica-schists of the Kitel’skoye deposit in Priladozhie. Garnets were extracted at this deposit even in the 17-18ss cent. Content of almandine in weathered schists there reaches some per cents, and the size of crystals is up to 2.5 cm. The output of gem-quality material from concentrate is about 1%. Translucent garnets in size up to 22 cm. in a small quantity are found at the Shuyeretskoye deposit, where the main reserves are classified as abrasive rough material. In the north of Karelia, almandine crystals to 15 cm. in cross-section was found in amphibolites of the Dyadina Mt. deposit, near the railway station Chupa. On the Kola Penin. in the Keivy Ridge, there are many displays of almandine in the region of development of stavrolite-garnet schists, where content of garnet often reaches 20%. In one of such displays, in metasomatics of the Makzapakhk Mt., almandines are represented with large non-transparent crystals up to 25 cm. In the north-east of the Kola Penin., in the upper reaches of the Yukonga River, a tributary of the Ponoy River, near Kanevka, a perspective display of almandine of gem-quality is situated, where they find crystals up to 2 cm. In the Middle Urals, well-formed almandine crystals are found in the schists of the Glubochinskoye deposit, in the region of Sysert. In East Siberia, few almandines were found in pegmatites of the Mamskoye deposit, near Bodaibo. In Kazakhstan, there are almandine deposits: Alexandrovskoye, Asubulack and others; in Uzbekistan – in the Sultan Uiz-Dag Ridge; in Mongolia – at Altan Huduk. Rocks rich with almandine can be interesting as decorative stones. Such as amphibole-garnet and garnet gneisses of the Tulepskoye deposit in the Alma-Ata region, Kazakhstan.

In Norway, at the Sunnfjord deposit, the biggest nontransparent crystal of almandine, 1000 kg, about 1 m. in cross-section, was found. In Sweden, at the Falun deposit, Dalarnas, the size of crystals reached 20 cm. In the north of Finland, in Lapplands Län, almandine with the effect of asterism –four-radial star was found. In Romania, in mica-schists of the Sâliciua de Sus deposit well-formed crystals of almandine reached 7 cm. In Africa, gem-quality almandine is extracted in Zimbabwe – near Mtoko; in Tanzania – at the deposits of the Tunduru-Songea region, Lindi, and at the placers on the Umba River. On Madagascar almandine crystals up to 23 cm. in size at the Ampandramaika deposit were extracted. Among other countries we should mention placer-deposits of almandine in South India: in the Bihar State – near Hazaribag and Aravelli, in the Andhra Pradesh State – at the Garibreta mine; and near Hyderäbäd, where star almandine were found. Almandine was extracted in Rajasthan, near Jaipur. On Sri Lanka, almandine is extracted at the placers near Candy and Ratnapura. Similar deposits are in Myanmar (Burma) and in China – in the Yunnan Prov., In Afghanistan, in the Kunar Prov., there is the Pachigram deposit with almandine crystals up to 5 cm. in size in the changed schists.

In Brazil, some almandine deposits were formed in the process of weathering of pegmatites with garnet. They are situated in the Rio Grande do Notre State, near Poco dos Cavalos. In the Pernambuco State, almandine at the placers in the basin of the São Francisco River is extracted; in Minas Gerais State, near Minas Novas; and also in the states of Bahia, Rio de Janeiro and Rio Grandi do Sol. In the U.S.A., in the Idaho, in the weathering crust of mica-schist’s, near the Fernwood town, the Emerald Creek deposit was opened, where star almandine was found. In the New York State, at the of abrasive garnet deposit Barton, Warren Co., the maximum size of almandine crystals with inclusions of chromite reached 1 m. In Colorado such large crystals, up to 6.6 kg., were found also at the deposit in the Ruby Mts., and Calumet mine. In Maine, crystals up to 25 cm. in pegmatite at Topsham, Sagadahos Co. In Nevada, at the Garnet Hill deposit, White Pine Co., in rhyolites geodes with crystals of thick red transparent spessartine-almandine, from 0.5 to 1.5 cm. in size were found. On Alaska, we should mention the metamorphic Fort Wrangell deposit, where transparent middle-sized almandine crystals (about 1 cm. and up to 4.5 cm.) were found. In Canada, almandine deposits are situated in the region of Skin and Garnet Is., as well as on the Baffin Land. In West. Greenland, in the Nuuk (Godthaab), at the almandine placer were found crystals up to 25 kg. They received a local name grönlandite. In East. Greenland, the deposit of andradite-melanite, with crystals up to 12 cm. in size, in the region of Kangerluarsuk (Kangerdluarssuk) Fjord, was opened. In 1990-s, the first mentions appeared about findings of gem-quality almandine in Antarctic, on the Rower Iss., from that rough material cut gems up to 3.2 ct. were made.

Synonyms. Almandite or alamandite | Amephyst, obs | Bijasi, Arabic | Falungranat, Germ. | ~ garnet: Alabandian ~, Ceylon ~, Falun ~, Ferrous ~, Indian ~, Kolín ~, from the town Kolín, Czech Rep.; oriental ~, pigeon blood ~, Siberian ~, Singhalesian ~, on the national group on Sri Lanka; Siriam ~, Tyrolean ~. | Greenlandite | Ceylon hyacinth | Red jachont | ~ ruby: Adelaide ~, on the place of finding near Adelaide, Australia; Alabandine ~, American ~, Barbarian ~, Ceylon ~, on Sri Lanka (Ceylon); Kibdell ~, wild ~.| Garnet spinel | Kandy spinel | Venisa, from Pers. “benefise” – “violet” | Alabandinic venisa.

Legends. In the ancient times almandine was not differed from pyrope, later both of them supposed to have the same healing proprieties. As a talisman, it is a stone of love, which produces passion and gives joy. As an amulet, it was believed to protect from witchcraft and “evil eye”. In the U.S.A., garnet is an official emblem of the New York State, and star garnet is an emblem of the Idaho.

Similarity. Cut almandine looks like pyrope, spinel and ruby, it differs from the first two because of the most density, from the third one (ruby) – because of the less hardness.

Spessartine (Spessartin—Spessartine—Спессартин) (Beudant, F.S. 1832), after the place of its finding, in the Spessart region, north-western Bavaria, Germany. Aluminum garnet – Mn3Al2[SiO4]3, manganese member of the isomorphic row pyrope-spessartine. Density. 3.8-4.2. Spessartine, unlike other garnets, is found more rare. It is represented with well-formed crystals, as well as with irregular or round grains. Their size is usually up to 5 cm., more rare – up to 10 cm. Samples of gem-quality quality are very rare. The color is rose, orange-red, brown-red, brown, more rarely – yellow. Transparent to non-transparent, for large crystals inclusions are typical. With high content of almandine red tone dominates in the color as it is obvious in espessandit. Pale orange color is characteristic for pure spessartine. There were findings of its crystals with the alexandrite effect.

Deposits. There are no separate deposits of spessartine. It is found in granite pegmatites, gneisses, rhyolites, skarns, quartzites, also it is a constant impurity of rhodonite rocks. In Russia, on the Kola Penin., there were findings of spessartine in pegmatites of Kolmozero; in Karelia – in pegmatites of Priladozhie; and in the north, also near the settlements Alakurtti and Chupa. In the Middle Urals, at the Bazhenovskoye deposit, near Asbest, spessartine as transparent crystals up to 5 cm. in size was found; at the Izumrudnye kopi – as transparent crystals up to 1 cm. in size; as well as in pegmatites of Murzinka. At the Malo-Sedel’nikovskoye rhodonite deposit, near Yekaterinburg, spessartine is in fine-scale grained aggregates of brownish-yellow color. In Pribaikalia, it was found in pegmatites of the Slyudyanka deposit, and in the Talaya River. At the deposits of Europe gem-quality varieties of spessartine were found in insignificant quantities in Germany – near Ashchaffenburg, Bavaria; in Sweden – broddbogranat, Broddbo, Västmanland; and also in Norway, Nordland – large red-brown crystals at the Bodø deposit – bodenbenderit; and as crystals up to 10 cm. at Iveland. In Africa, spessartine is known in Tanzania and Kenya – in the Taita Hills Mts., where its orange-red crystals reach 5 cm. in size. In Namibia, its yellow-orange gem-quality crystals up to 1 cm. – hollandine were found. On the Kunene River, yellow-orange Kunenian red spessartine or Malaya garnet is extracted, which received the trade name mandarin garnet. In South Africa, spessartine with significant admixture of yttrium was known, it was called emildine. On Madagascar, orange-yellow spessartine is at the Tsilaizina deposit, near Antsirabe, where it is extracted from lepidolite pegmatites together with tourmaline. In Australia, dark red spessartine as additional material at the Broken Hill mine is extracted, New South Wales; the size of its crystals reaches 10 cm.

In India, orange-red and red-brown spessartine is extracted at the deposits Gilgit and Tormiq Valley, and orange-red to cherry-red – at the new deposit near the city of Azad Kashmir in the Jammu and Kashmir State (disputed area), it has the trade name kashmirine. From this rough material they receive cut stones up to 45 ct. In the region of Mumbai (form. Bombay) orange-red spessartine is found, and in the Madhya Pradesh State – orange to brown-red. There is also known an intermediate variety between almandine and spessartine – spandite or spalmandite, and in Rajasthan, at the Sarvar mine, in the region of Ajmer, honey-brown garnet was extracted. Orange-red spessartine of gem-quality is extracted also at placers of Myanmar and Sri Lanka, near Ratnapura. In India, at the Sitasaongi deposit is known ornamental rock – gondite of spessartine-quartz with piemontite and pumpellyite, which is named after the local tribe of gonda. This ornamental rock is also known under the name of garnetoid. In Russia, it is found in the Polar Urals, where it is highly evaluated as an ornamental stone.

In America, findings of transparent red spessartine are known in Canada, at the Asbestos deposit, Québec Prov. In the U.S.A., in Virginia, at the Amelia deposit, in pegmatites spessartine was found as brownish-red to pale orange crystals up to 10 cm. in size, from which cut stones up to 7 ct. were made, and from time to time – even to 96 ct. The biggest for this deposit spessartine, which was found in 1972, was 12.5x11.5x7 cm. in size and 1,344 gm. (6,720 ct.). In California, transparent spessartine up to 3 cm. was found in pegmatites at the deposits Ramona, Pala, Himalaya and others. In Colorado, near Nathrop, orange and orange-brown spessartine was found. In Mexico, there is known the Sierra San Pedro spessartine deposit, Chihuahua State. In Brazil, orange-red crystals spessartine were extracted in Minas Gerais on the placers along the Rivers Santa Maria and Abaeté also and at the Linopolis deposit cubic crystals of spessartine were found. In the states of Ceará and Rio Grande do Norte also there are the deposits of spessatrine.

Synonyms. Emildine (emilin, emilite), in the name of Emile, the son of the researcher, who suggested this name | Mandarin-garnet, on the color | Manganese-garnet | Partschinite (partschin) on the surname of Austrian serviceman P. Partsh | Vermeil (vermilion), from anc. Fr. name cinnabar, on the color, it is also the general name for orange-red and red-brown gems, including sapphire, spinel, garnet.

Similarity. Spessartine looks like hessonite, zircon, titanite, tourmaline, citrine, beryl, from which it differs in optic proprieties.

Grossular (Grossular—Grossulaire—Гроссуляр) (Werner, A.G. 1811). The name alludes to the resemblance of pale green specimens to gooseberry, which botanical name is “Ribes grossularia.” Calcium garnet – Ca3Al2[SiO4]3, aluminum member of isomorphic row grossular-uvarovite. Density. 3.6. Grossular is found as isometric grains and complete masses. Usual size of crystals is not more than 3 cm. Non-transparent to transparent. It is typical to have many inclusions – micro-crystals of apatite and zircon. According the color, they classified such varieties: colorless and white grossular – white garnet or leucogarnet; orange-red, lilac-red to brown-red – hessonite; amber-colored – succinite; emerald-green – tsavorite. Color depends on admixtures of chromophors. Chrome-grossular is green because of chromium; succinite is yellow because of iron; rose garnet is light brown and rose-red because of manganese; tsavorite is bluish-green because of chromium and vanadium. From the point of view of its genesis, grossular is typical material of contact metasomatics and it is often found in skarns. Deposits. At first, grossular or achtarandit was described in Russia on the Vilyui River in 1790 – E.G. Laksmann found it in volcanic tuffs of Yakutia, near the mouth of the Achtaranda River. It is represented there with well-formed translucent and apple-green non-transparent and brownish-green crystals up to 8 cm. In the Middle Urals, gem-quality hessonite at the Bazhenovskoye deposit was extracted, near Asbest, and at the Sarany deposit, Perm’ Region. Its transparent reddish-orange crystals reached 2.5 cm. in cross-section. In South Urals, hessonite at the Ahmatovskaya and Shishimskaya mines as garnets crust was found, which contains small orange crystals. Such crusts are found in the Primorskiy Region, at the Dal’negorskoye deposit. They are used as insets in jewelries. In the same region, at the Sinerechinskoye deposit, green grossular is found as large crystals. In the region of Noril’sk, on the plateau Haraelyakh, green grossular – tsavorite type colored with admixture of copper was found. In Azerbaijan, grossular at the Dashkesan deposit in fissures among skarns was found in the form of brownish-green crystals up to 3 cm. In Europe, the most significant deposits of grossular are known: in Italy – Valle d’Ala, Piedmont, with amber-colored crystals of succinite; and Val d’Fassa with transparent crystals of green grossular, from where cut stones up to 5 mm. were received. In the western part of Romania, gem-quality hessonite up to 5 cm. at the deposits Bâita Bihor and Ocna de Fier was found. In Finland, brown-red crystals of rumjanzowit were found. In Africa, hessonite deposits are in Tanzania, in the Tunduru-Songea area. In the end of 1960s, in the northern part of the country, in skarns near Arusha, emerald-green vanadium grossular-tsavorite was found with its satellite blue zoisite tanzanite. At the Karo mine near Merelani Hills, gem-quality tsavorite in crystals up to 5 cm. were found. Not long ago, in the south-western part of Tanzania, a new deposit of tsavorite was opened near Mtwara, not far from the border with Mozambique. The biggest gems of high quality are extracted there. In 1971, in Kenya, in the neighborhood with Tanzania, tsavorite at the Lualenyi deposit was found, near Voy. The biggest crystals are there up to 30 ct., and their transparent parts are not more than 5 ct. The biggest faceting tsavorite of good quality, 16.67 ct., is in the collection of gemologist R. Webster. In short time after it tsavorite was found in the south of Madagascar, near Bekily. In Mali, green andradite-grossular and hessonite with crystals up to 20 cm. and 3.5 kg. at the Diakon and Dionboko deposit, near Kayes, and at the Sandaré deposit near Nioro du Sahel, were extracted. From transparent parts of green garnet they make a cut gem up to 1 ct. Similar green andradite-grossular from Namibia is quite often passed off as demantoid because of its color. In South-Eastern Asia, hessonite has been extracted at placers in Sri Lanka, near Matare, and also in India at deposits of the states Orissa and Rajasthan since long ago. In Pakistan, there is also a deposit of green gem-quality grossular. In China, in the Altey Mts. of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Territory, in the serpentinous peridotites of grossular crystals good for cut, more than 3 cm. in size are found.

In North America, grossular deposits are in Canada. In the Québec Prov., at the deposits Jeffrey and Asbestos rose, orange and green grossular of gem-quality up to 2.5 cm. is extracted, as well as colorless leucogarnet. In the U.S.A., in Colorado, grossular at the Ralston Ranch deposit is found, Jefferson Co. Hessonite of gem-quality is extracted as additional material at mines in Arizona, New Hampshire, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. In Maine crystals of hessonite up to 12 cm. at the Minot deposit, Androscoggin Co., occur in the contact of pegmatites with skarn. In the New York State, in the region of Brewster, and in California, green grossular, not more than 1 cm. was extracted from time to time. In Vermont, grossular in the Belvidere Mt. is known, Lamoille Co., and at the Eden Mills deposit orange grossular was found. From Mexico to the world market gem-quality grossular comes from the Lake Jaco deposit, Chihuahua. There they extract large rose, white and greenish crystals up to 15 cm. in cross-section. Cut gems up to 10 ct. are made from them. Rose garnet is extracted in the Morelos State, at the Xalostoc deposit and in the Coahuila de Zaragoza State, at the Sierra de Las Cruces deposit, where crystals up to 15 cm. were found. In Brazil, findings of grossular are known in Minas Gerais.

Ornamental rocks. Rodingite – garnet-containing vein rock of metasomatic genesis, which was formed mainly with hydrogrossular. Veins of rodingites are situated in contact zones of hyperbasite massifs and are widespread. It is a rock of green or rose color, which is polished easily; it is used as ornamental material. Rodingites are found often at deposits of nephrite and jadeite. In Kazakhstan, in the Pavlodar Region, at the Ekibastuz deposit, violet rodingites are extracted. In Uzbekistan, in the Sultan Uiz-Dag Ridge, ornamental zoisite rodingite is known. To rodingite variety, according the conditions of its genesis, light colored, translucent white jade or grossularite jade can be attributed. In Poland, grossular-vesuvianite rhodingite is found at the Szklary mine (form. Kosemitz), near Jordanov in Lower Silesia, where it is used as decorative material. They are often greenish with black inclusions of chromite and magnetite. According the place of finding, rodingite is called Arizona rodingite, Africa rodingite, Pakistan rodingite or Transvaal jade. Transvaal jade was extracted in South Africa at the deposits Buffelsfontein and Rustenburg, North-West Prov., There are 12 varieties of it, which differ in color depending on admixtures of iron, manganese and some other elements. If there are less than 2%, jade is colorless or pale colored. Manganese gives it rose color and admixture of zoisite – gray. In African jade admixture of chromium is obvious, which gives it bright green color. Large quantities of iron admixture produce brown to dark green color with yellow tones. Pakistan jade has decorative stripes; it is extracted in significant volume. In Myanmar, white jade with admixture of jadeite is extracted. In China, green jade is used widely for the imitation of nephrite. Hydrogrossular jade is known also in Canada, at the Asbestos mine, Québec, and at the Whitehorst deposit, Yukon Prov. In the U.S.A. – in California, at the Crestmore quarry, in Utah and Alaska. In New Zealand – at the Tokatoka deposit, in Australia on the King Is., Tasmania. In Mexico, rose variety of that jade was found.

Synonyms. Ernite Fr.| Gooseberry garnet | Noble grossular | Olintolite, from Gk. “olintos” – not ripe fig, on color | Gooseberry stone.

Brown grossular – Apricotine, from New Jersey, the U.S.A. | Cinnamite | Ceylon garnet | Guarnaccinian garnet | Hyacinth garnet | Vermeilé garnet | Hessonite (essonite), from Gk. “esson” – less, because of less hardness than hyacinth has | Californian hyacinth | Ceylon hyacinth | False hyacinth | Hyacinthoid, obs. | Kanehlstein, from Germ. “Kaneel” – cinnamon | Californian ruby | Brown stone | Cinnamon stone, because of the similarity with the color of cinnamon oil.

Green grossular – Carchedonius, obs. | Pakistan emerald | Vanadium garnet | Green grossular | Vanadiium grossular | Tsavorite, on the place of finding in the National park Tsavo, Kenya.

Rose grossular – Landerite, after Mexican chemist K.F. Landero, from Morelos, Mexico | Rosolite (roselite), on color | Xalostocite, on the place of finding near Xalostoc in Mexico.

Dark brown grossular – Rumjanzowit, after Russ. military commander, Count P.O. Rumjanzow | Tellemarkit.

Hydrogrossular – general name for water-containing garnets of isomorphic row hibschit – katoite | Grossularoid.

Ornamental rocks – Transvaal garnet | Grossularite | Garnet jade | South African jade | African nephrite | Transvaal nephrite | Rodingite, on the place of finding near the Roding-River, Dan Mt., New Zealand | Marsh rodingite, on the color | Zoisitic rodingite, on the content.

Similarity. Green tsavorite looks like demantoid, hessonite looks like spessartine. Californite – mixture of vesuvianite with grossular – looks like Transvaal jade very much.

Andradite (Andradit—Andradite—Андрадит) (Dana, J.D. 1868), after José Bonifacio d’Andrada e Silva (1763-1838), Brazilian statesman and geologist, who first examined and described the mineral. Calcium garnet – Ca3Fe23+[SiO4]3, ferrous member of isomorphic row grossular-uvarovite. Density 3.7-4. Andradite exists in large isometric crystals up to 10 cm. in cross-section and joint groups of such crystals. The widespread one is its less attractive red-brown variety – allochroite, as well as golden-yellow, honey and lemon yellow transparent topazolite. More rare is amber-brown pearl garnet and greenish-yellow to light yellow jelletite. The most rare is emerald-green variety of demantoid, from diamond luster called so because of bright glistening. Its color depends on admixture of chromium, and yellowish tone appears because of titanium. That’s why demantoid was at first treated as chrysolite, and it was called also Ural chrysolite. Round shape of crystals is typical for demantoid; usually it contains numerous inclusions of threat-like byssolite or chrysotile. Sometimes these inclusions are oriented in bunches, it is so called “horse tail”; they are hollow tubes from minerals given away by alkali. From time to time they produce the effect of cat’s-eye in crystals. Black andradite is represented with titan containing melanite (up to 12% TiO2), schorlomite, or titangarnet (up to 22% TiO2). In andradite, as well as in demantoid, after cut the effect of cat’s-eye appears. Andradite from Mexico is known for its iridescence. Andradite skarn – contact-metasomatic rock, which contains andradite. It is interesting as ornamental material decorative type.

Deposits. Andradite is typical material of skarns, hydrothermal and metamorphic formations, it is found in serpentinous, limestones and alkali magmatic rocks. In Russia, demantoid was found at first in the Middle Urals at the gold field 25 km. to the southwest from Nizhniy Tagil in 1868. In the end of the 19th – the early of the 20th cent. from that placers the extraction of demantoid was opened – to 100 kg. per year. At that place unique crystals 149 and 252.5 ct. was found. In the main that deposit was known as Bobrovskoye in the end of the 20th cent. There from mineralized fissures in serpentinous rocks yellowish-green crystals of demantoid up to 10 mm. in size are extracted. Their color is often zonal – bright red in the center and more light at the edges. One more demantoid placer – Bobrovka River or Poldnevskoye deposit is in the Middle Urals. It was opened in 15 km. to the south-west from the Poldnevaya village and in 80 km. to the south from Yekaterinburg in 1874. Recent years, not far from that place the fundamental Novo-Karkodinskoye deposit was discovered. Demantoid there is found in crystals, middle size of which is 10 mm. and sometimes – up to 30 mm. in cross-section. In the Museum of the History of Jewelry and Stone-cut Art (Yekaterinburg) there is a unique crystal “Demantoid of Alexandrov” named after Urals geologist A.I. Alexandrov, who described demantoides of the Urals. The size of this crystal is 22x16.4x16.2 mm., weight – 12.69 gm. Besides, at the Middle Urals, in the region of Asbest, and in the South Urals, at the Shishimskie Mts., findings of topazolite are known. In alkali-carbonatite massifs of the central type, in the north of the Krasnoyarsk Region – in Guly and Odikhincha, as well as on the Kola Penin., at the deposits Kovdor and Africanda, melanite and similar to it schorlomite are widespread. They are black nontransparent varieties of andradite. At the Odikhincha deposit, regular crystals of schorlomite have size up to 10 cm. On the Kamchatka, on the Koryak Upland, the demantoid of the Tamvatney deposit was opened in 1968; later, on the Chukchi Penin., Chirinai deposit was opened, where demantoid good for cut was found as well as crusts of small crystals of demantoid and topazolite. In the north of the Kamchatka Penin., in the exocontact of Kuyul’ hyperbasite massif, the Chechatvaeem deposit with placers of demantoid and gem-quality topazolite was opened. The size of demantoid at that placer is up to 0.9 cm.; light green transparent crystals are dominating. The output of cut gems from rough material reaches there 20%. In Primorskiy Region there is in the Sinerechinskoye andradite deposit with crystals up to 4 cm. in druses aggregates. Findings of green translucent andradite are known at the Dal’negorskoye deposit.

In Kazakhstan, at the Sokolovskiy mine, black andradite crystals up to 8 cm were found. In Armenia, demantoid on Sevan Lake and in other places was found. In Azerbaijan, it was found at the Shahan-Dag and Daschkesan deposits. In the northwest of Finland, near Kuusama, brown to black andradite at the Iivaara deposit is extracted, which has local name ivaarite. Less valuable findings were made in Slovakia, near Dobšhiná; in the Switzerland, the Zermatt topazolite deposit; and also in France. In Germany, at the Kaiserstule deposit, Baden-Wurtemberg, large glistening melanite crystals were found. In Italy, at the Val Malenco asbestos mine, Sondrio Prov., Upper Lombardy, the biggest demantoid and topazolite deposit was opened with crystals up to 3 cm., from which cut gems up to 15 ct. were made. In Iran, single green demantoid crystals to about 5 cm. from Kermän, Kermän Prov., are known. In Central Africa, in Congo (Kinshasa) high quality brown and green andradite is extracted. In South Africa, it is extracted at the Wessels mine in Kalahari. Its deposits are known also in Namibia, Ethiopia, South Korea and China. In the north of India, in the Jammu and Kashmir State (disputed area), 80 km. to the west from Skardu a chrysolite and demantoid deposit was opened. In Afghanistan, at deposits of demantoid, crystals up to 4 cm. were found. In the U.S.A., Arizona, at the deposit Stanley Batt, demantoid and yellow-brown andradite were extracted, and in Arkansas, at the Magnet Cove deposit, from schorlomite crystals cut gems for funeral decorations were made, up to 20 ct. In California, in the San Benito Co., melanite was extracted, and at the deposit Green Fire Claim – demantoid. In Idaho, at the Garnet Queen mine, red brown andradite was extracted, from which cut gems up to 48.13 ct. were made. In New Jersey, at the Franklin deposit, brownish-yellow crystals of andradite up to 13 cm. were found, as well as their grain aggregates. On Alaska, on the Prince of Wales Is., andradite crystals up to 7 cm. are found. In Mexico, at the deposit Sierra Madre, Sonora State, demantoid of olive-green color has spotty iridescence. Because of this effect, it is called rainbow andradite or rainbow garnet. In the Kolima State, at the Trapichilios deposit, the size of andradite crystals reached 20 cm. In Canada, demantoid in crystals up to 1.6 cm. at the Las D’amiante mine, Québec, was found.

Synonyms. Allochroite, Gk. – colorless, on the color | Aplome, Gk. – simple, on the shape of crystals | Bredbergite, green, manganese-containing | Common garnet | Pech granat, yellow-green | Haplome | Johnstonotite, after Engl. mineralogist R. Johnston | Polyadelphite, from Gk. “poly” – many and “adelphos” – brother | Pyreneite, on the place of finding in the Pyrenees | Rothoffite, after Swedish chemist Rothoffe | Pitch venisa | Xantholite from Gk. “xantos” – yellow and “litos” – stone.

Demantoid – Chrysolampis, by Marbodus | Commercial chrysolite | Russian chrysolite | Siberian chrysolite | Bobrovka garnet | Green garnet | Ural garnet | Bobrovka emerald | Scythian emerald | Ural emerald | Oliven | Garnet olivine | Siberian olivine | Ural olivine.

Topazolite (B. Bonvoison, 1806) on the similarity of color with topazSuccinite garnet | Succinite.

Melanite, from Gk. “melas” – black, on the color | Black garnet | Colophonite | Ferrotitanite | Schorlomite.

Quality improvement. There is an experience in quality improvement both light colored and gray-green and brown demantoids. With the annealing in graphite powder under temperature 850°C, under pressure to 15 Kilobar., they become more transparent, color strengthens to bright green, because of the restoration of iron (Fe3+ to Fe2+).

Similarity. Demantoid looks like emerald, green grossular, vesuvianite, green zircon, titanite and chrysolite. It differs from them in optic properties, including strong dispersion and presence of fissure inclusions of byssolite of “horse tail” type, which is characteristic only for demantoid. Topazolite can be treated as garnet by mistake – as succinite.

Uvarovite (Uvarovit—Uvarovite—Уваровит) (Hess, G.H. 1832), after Count S.S. Uvarov (1786- 1855), Russ. statesman and scholar, President of the Russian Academy (1818-1855). Calcium garnet – Ca3Cr2[SiO4]3, chrome member of isomorphic row grossular-uvarovite. Density 3.7. Uvarovite usually forms small crystals and groups of joint crystals – garnets crust or uvarovite crust on the walls cracks chrome-containing veins and chromites ores. The square of such crusts is often more than 10 cm2 . In jewelry they are used widely as insets. Uvarovite is transparent to non-transparent; it has bright emerald-green color, which depends on chromium. If the content of titanium admixture is high, uvarovite becomes rusty-green. Uvarovite with admixtures is called trautwinitein the U.S.A.

Deposits. Uvarovite is found in chromites ores and in contacts with them in limestones and serpentinites. In Russia, the classic deposit of uvarovite in chromites is Sarany in the Middle Urals. There gem-quality uvarovite crystals of up to 9 cm. in cross-section are found from time to time. In the same region of the Urals, there are similar deposits Sysert, Biserskoye, Bilimbaevsk and others. In Kazakhstan, the similar Kimpersai deposit is known, Mugojary Mts. Among other deposits we should mention in Finland, at the Outokumpu copper sulfide deposit, near Kuusjärvi, where uvarovite crystals up to 5 cm. in size were found. The biggest crystals reached 45x30 cm. but they were non-transparent because of a great quantity of mineral admixtures. In brightness and deepness of color Finnish uvarovites are worse than Ural ones. Recently, uvarovite was found in South Africa, at the Hendriksplatz deposit in chromites of the Bushveld massif, Northern Prov., where its variety trautwinite filled with admixtures was found. Its findings are also known in Norway – at the Røros deposit, Sør-Trøndelag; in France – Pico de Posets, Midi-Pyrenees; in Poland – Jordanów Slaski; in Turkey – Maden (Egranimadeni) and Kop Krom, Elazig vilayet.; in Australia – at the Fonteney deposit. In China, good crystals up to 2 cm. occur at Yi Gong, near Tong Mai, Tibet. In Canada, uvarovite is known at the deposits Orford and Stafford, Québec. In the U.S.A., rare finds uvarovite crystals up to 1 cm. are known in deposits: Blue Point claim and Jacksonville – in California; at the Riddle deposit, Grant Co. – in Oregon; and in Texas. Besides, uvarovite is known in Scotland, Ethiopia and India.

Synonyms. Hanléite, on the place of finding near Hanle, India | Chrome garnet | Green garnet | Ural emerald | Skiagite, on the place of finding near Glen Skiag, Scotland | Trautwinite, after Amer. researcher G.K. Trautwine.

Cut Gems. Gem-quality garnets have been used among the first gems because the mankind had known them for more than 3,000 years. The most ancient piece of jewelry with garnets is an Egyptian diadem, which is dated to 3,200 B.C. Polished and drilled beads of garnet, malachite and turquoise are inset in it. In Ancient Greece, garnet was used sometimes in glyptic before the 5th cent. B.C. After the wars of Alexander the Great (Macedonian) trade routes to India were opened. Since the 4th cent. B.C., garnet has become more available for jewelers. To these times intaglio with the portrait of Alexander the Great (Macedonian) on garnet is dated; it is in the British Museum, London now (the size is 18x18 mm.), as well as other pieces of glyptic and jewelry of the Hellenistic period. In Ancient Rome, garnet became even more popular. Garnet cabochons were inset into massive gold rings and lockets. In Europe, garnets came in fashion in the end of the 19th cent. In Russia, garnets were also well known. In jewelries with partition enamel they can be observed as flat insets. In the Armory Museum Kreml. Moscow they are inset into jewelries from Ryazan’ treasure (1237). After the establishing of faceting garnets were usually faceted. The most popular in Russia they were in the 15-17th cent. Garnet with brilliant faceting is used in manufacturing of necklaces, bracelets, beads, rosaries and others objects even now. To enlighten too thick color ancient form of cabochon cut is used – in a shape of “saucer”. In the mosaic picture “Map of the U.S.S.R.”  which was made from gemstones in 1937, garnets marked 426 large industrial objects.

Pyrope in the jewelry history played a large role in Czech, where in the 18th cent. its mass cutting was organized. In Germany, in Grün. Gew., Dresden, there are two Czech pyropes: 468.5 and 633.4 ct. Three large pyropes in the shape of round cabochons among brilliants decorate the Order of “Golden Fleece” which was the possession of the Kings of Saxony. The size of the order is 8 cm. long, the biggest “pyrope” has weight 47.9 ct., and its size is 34x27.4x9 mm. According J. Hyrsl (2001), it was classified as almandine, may be from one of Czech deposits. In the Museum in Tfiebenice, Czech Rep., there is the famous garnet set from six pieces – the gift of J.W. Goethe to his beloved one. It contains 460 cut pyropes, unique in beauty and size. The biggest of them was faceted in the “rose-cut,” its size is 12.3x8.6 mm., weight is 13.21 ct. One of the biggest rhodolites, good for cut, 43.3 ct., was found in the U.S.A. After cut its weight was reduced to 14 ct. The biggest rhodolite of gem-quality, 74.3 ct., was found in Tanzania.

Almandines of good quality cost more than pyropes. In jewelry they have been used since ancient times. We can see it from the name of mineral according Alabanda in Asia Minor, the center of cut and sales of gemstones, which was situated 30 km. to the east from Miletus, at the western coast of the Aegean Sea. Another synonym of almandine is Siriam garnet; it was connected with Siriam – the capital of the ancient kingdom of Pegu, the ancient center of cutting and sales of garnets. It was situated to the south from Rangoon on the territory of modern Myanmar (Burma). From Siriam garnet incorrect term was produced – Syrian garnet. Almandine in doublets with glass was popular in the 18th cent. as an imitation of ruby. In the collection of the State Hermitage, SPb., there are some cameos on almandine, including one with the bust of Xenocrator, France, 16th cent. 1.5x1.1 cm. The most part of cut almandine is received from Indian and Brazilian deposits now. From broken parts of crystals gems not more than 2 ct. are made, from some transparent crystals – bigger gems, too. Among the unique gems we should mention cut almandines from the collection of the Smiths. Inst. Wash.: a reddish-brown gem, 40.6 ct. from Madagascar and two gems from the Emerald Creek deposit, Idaho, the U.S.A., 67.3 and 174 ct. (the second one is a cabochon in the shape of lens) – they have the effect of asterism as six-radial and four-radial stars.

Spessartine in jewelry has been used only since the middle of the 19th cent. It is one of the most beautiful garnets after cut. As almandine it can be found in large crystals, but stones good for cut are usually of a small size. The best quality rough material is found in Brazil and on Madagascar. In the Smiths. Inst. Wash. there are two unique cut red gems from Brazil, 109 and 53.8 ct.; and in the AMNH, N.Y. there is not absolutely transparent reddish spessartine, 96 ct. From the Amelia deposit in the Unites States cut stones are usually not more than 20 ct. but there is a unique gem in the Smiths. Inst. Wash.: 40.1 ct. There is also an orange cut gem from Madagascar, 30 ct.

Grossular received its name only in the early of the 19th cent., but its yellow-orange variety hessonite under the names of carbuncle, hyacinth or hyacinthus, jacinth, lyncurium was known in the ancient world and used in jewelry because the rough material came from placers of India and Ceylon (now Sri Lanka). The biggest cut grossular, up to 25 ct., came from Canada, one of them is a hessonite, 16.5 ct., which is kept in the Kunst. Hist. Museum, Vienna. In the National Collection of minerals, Canada, there is a cut hessonite, 24 ct. In the AMNH, N.Y. a cameo with an image of Jesus Christ on hessonite is exhibited, its weight is 61.5 ct.; and in the Smiths. Inst. Wash. – a cut orange-brown hessonite from Sri Lanka, 64.2 ct., and a golden-red one, 17.3 ct. Tsavorite usually is represented with small cut stones up to 1 ct., the biggest gem of an emerald cut from Kenya, 16.67 ct., is kept in the private collection of R. Webster in the U.S.A.

Andradite as a gem is rarely under cutting because of its dark color but there is known some of such stones. Black schorlomite and melanite are used mainly for funeral decorations. Beautiful druses of andradite from the Sinerechenskoye deposit in the Primorskiy Region are highly evaluated among collectors. As a rock-forming mineral andradite is in the content figured skarn. Mosaics from such skarn, from the Dal’negorskoye deposit in the Primorskiy Region, columns in the subway station of Petrovsko-Razumovskaya in Moscow are decorated. The most valuable variety of garnet is demantoid because it is rare, bright colored in green, has brilliant glistening and strong play of color, but it is not often of more than 10 ct. Aunique gem of 10.4 ct. from the Urals’ deposit is kept in the Smiths. Inst. Wash. The second in value is topazolite, it is usually not more than 2-3 ct. but there is a gem more than 20 ct. in one of the private collections.

Uvarovite is usually non-transparent, and it is used in jewelry mainly as crusts, which have bright glistening and even emerald color. They are used in brooches, rings, bracelets and necklaces. Cut gems are very rare and not more than 1 ct.

Legends. From the ancient times people believed in magical properties of garnets. They symbolize persistence and force, constant and truthful nature, health and faithfulness. Red garnet is a stone of love, anxiety and blood, fire and passion. As a talisman, it gives luck to passionate persons, helps them to avoid troubles in travels. Astrologers believe that red garnets are lucky stones of people, who were born under the zodiac signs of fire – Sagittarius and Leo, as well as Taurus; but red garnet is contra-indicated to Virgo, Pisces and Capricorn. Green garnets are the source of energy in the active life. Garnets are wonderful talismans for creative people: red garnets help to create an image, green ones – to form it in reality. Carbuncle is red garnet; it was one of 12 gems, mentioned in the Bible – they decorated the breastplate of the high-priest Aaron. In the 19th cent., garnet was considered as a national stone of Austro-Hungary (Bohemia). It serves the official symbol of the Connecticut, the U.S.A.

Similar Gemstones & Imitations. In cut form uvarovite can be mixed with emerald. For the imitation of garnets synthetic materials are used: synthetic garnets, corundum, spinel, and also glass. For the imitation of demantoid green synthetic yttrium-aluminum and gadolinium-gallium garnets are used. Besides, for the imitation of garnets artificial material with garnet structure, produced in the Switzerland, is used; it has the trade name oulongolite. Its properties are close to the same of garnet: hardness – 7.5-8, density – 6.7-7.0, color can be rose, violet, blue, green or colorless.