Russian Gemstones Encyclopedia

Vladimir Bukanov. Russian Gemstones Encyclopedia



TOPAZ (Topas—Topaze—“опаз) (de Boodt, 1636 in Wallerius, J.G., 1747), from Gk. topazion, for a type of gemstone, probably after Sanskrit, “tapas” – fire, is alluding to the brilliance of the gem-quality material. A further possible derivation is from Topazios, the Gk. name for the Zabargad Is., in the Red Sea, which may have been on trade routes. It was known from antiquity. On the Topazios Is. chrysolite was extracted, that’s why in the antique times topaz was called chrysolite, and chrysolite was called topaz.

Composition & Properties. Silicate – Al2[6][(F,OH)2|SiO4], subclass of orthosilicates, orthorhombic system. Hardness 8. Density 3.4-3.6. Cleavage perfect in one direction, perpendicular to the length of crystals. Fragile. Glass luster to pearl one on joints. Topaz is found as well formed crystals up to 5 ton. Topaz crystals are classified into three types according the shapes of their top parts: 1) Obtuse one of isometric form with flat upper part – Murzinka topaz. 2) Pointed and barrel-shaped one with regularly grown edges – Ilmenian topaz. 3) Columnar one with pointed, wedge-shaped upper part – Sherlova Mt. topaz. The second morphological type is characteristic also for deposits of Pakistan, Kãtlang, North-West Frontier Prov.; and Brazil, Oro Prêto Region. Sometimes topaz forms radial-rayed aggregates up to 30 cm. in cross-section, so called picnite, which are growing on quartz substratum. At placers they are found as pebbles, which are also called schorlit. Topaz can also compound fine-grained and criptocrystalline jasper-like masses. Topazes can be different in color – from colorless, white, yellow, golden-orange, yellowish-brown, green to pale pink and bright rose, lilac and light blue. Polychromatic topazes with zonal-sectorial differentiation of color are not rare. Topazes are transparent to translucent. Their coloring admixtures are iron, titanium, vanadium and chromium. Stable pink and red-violet color depends on the admixture of chromium (Cr3+). Beside chromophores, irradiation-induced hollow centers of the oxygen (O) type take part in color of topazes. In colored topazes with less intensive tones pleochroism occurs. In the light its color weakens, it is more stable in light blue topazes. Yellow topazes with opalescence are called sometimes by incorrectly topaz cat’s-eye. Among ornamental inclusions in topazes there are needle crystals of rutile, tourmaline, cassiterite and others. With these inclusions asterism in star topaz, as well as the effect of cat’s-eye, and even iridescence are supposed to be connected. Transparent crystals of topaz, covered with white crust, which looks like teeth enamel, are called horse’s teeth. Gasliquid inclusions in crystals usually are concentrated in the flatness of joints; in pattern they look like fingerprints. According their value topazes can be described in such a row: red-orange – imperial topaz, pink topaz, thick colored wine-yellow – gold topaz, then tea-colored, light blue and colorless.

Deposits. Basic deposits of topaz are linked with pegmatites, greisens and hydrothermal veins. Topaz is found at placers together with other gemstones. In Russia, in the Middle Urals, deposits of blue topaz were discovered in pegmatites of Murzinka in 1722, and in 1738 – near Alabashka and in Kornilov Log. Later, topazes were extracted at the mines Mokrusha, Shaytanka, Lipovka and others. All of these deposits are situated in the region of Murzinsko-Aduiskaya pegmatite field, 170 km. long and up to 20 km. wide. Topazes, which are extracted there, usually are tender light blue in color; often they are colorless, more rare – wine-yellow or yellowish. Their weight reached 45 kg.; the size of crystals is usually 10-15 cm., in some cases – up to 25 cm. A unique finding at the deposit Mokrusha was made in 1985: it was a druses of topazes, 46.3 kg., which was called “Victory” in honor of the 40th anniversary of the victory over Germany in the World War II. It consisted from two joint big crystals of bluish-brown color and 25 small blue crystals from 1 to 6 cm. long with inclusions of albite, microcline and lepidolite. In the end of the 18th cent., in the South Urals, in pegmatites of the Ilmeny Mts., near Miass, they found colorless, yellow, light blue and polychromatic crystals of topazes, up to 5 kg. In 1853, at the Kochkar’ gold mines pink and pink-violet topazes from the placers of the rivers Kamenka and Sanarka were extracted as additional material. These rivers are in the basin of the Tobol River; they are tributaries of the Ui River. Topazes, which were extracted there, reached 4 cm. in length and received the name Orenburg topazes. In 1723, in Transbaikalia, to the north-east from the railway station of Boozy, in the Adun-Chilon Ridge, the first deposit of topaz in the Soktui Mt. was discovered. There in pegmatites topaz crystals of light blue, golden and wine-yellow color were found. Their average size was 5-10 cm.; sometimes they reached the size of 41x15 cm. In 1762- 1769, in this region, in the western part of the Adun-Chilon Ridge the topaz mines in the Kuku-Syrken were discovered, as well as a deposit in greisens of the Sherlova Mt. That deposit has been extracted with pauses till recent years. Together with aquamarines they found there less quantity of colorless, yellow and light blue topazes up to 15 cm. About 1831, in the Borshchovochnyi Kryazh, in pegmatites the Kiberevskie, Semenovskie and other mines were opened, as well as topaz deposits along the Urul’ga River. Urul’ga topazes are polychromatic, pale brown and light blue; they loose their color in the sunlight. The Kiberevskie mines became famous because of big crystals of wine-yellow topaz. In the Mining Museum, SPb., there is a crystal of topaz, 19x21 cm. in size, 13.01 kg., which was extracted at the Dorogoy Utës mine in 1840. In the collection of the British Museum, London, there is a transparent crystal of wine-yellow topaz from the deposit of the Borshchovochnyi Kryazh. The Orlovskoye deposit with beryl and topaz is of a greisen’s type; it was discovered in East Transbaikalia in the Soviet times. In 1980s, in Central Transbaikalia topazes of gem-quality in oligoclase pegmatites of the Malkhan Ridge were found in the size of crystals 4x3 cm. Among the modern findings in the Primorskiy Region we should mention the deposit Pogranichnoye with massive paurograined topaz; in pegmatites of the Khankaiskiy Dist. In the same area there is the deposit Zabytoye with crystals of topaz up to several kilograms’; and to the west from the Yaroslavskiy settlement, there is the deposit Voznesenskoye. On Chukchi Penin. topazes were found at the deposit Tenkergyn, 40 km. to the east from Iul’tin; and also at the deposit Svetloe, in the Iultinskiy ore field. Besides, in Polar Yakutia topazes were found at the tin-ore deposit Kester. In the Khabarovsk Region, at the Karadubskoye and Olonoiskoye deposits findings of sphaerolites of picnite were made.

In the Ukraine the first findings of topaz were made at the Zhitomir Region in 1867. The largest Volhynskoye pegmatite field with morione, beryl and topaz has been opened for extraction since 1931. It is represented with miarolitic granite pegmatites. Topazes from this deposit have a wide color spectrum – from pale rose, yellow, light blue, blue, brown to colorless; sometimes they are polychromatic – golden-rose with light blue. In cabochons of blue topaz the effect of cat’s-eye was observed. From time to time landscape topazes are found there. One of them, wine-rose, 1.85 kg., was called after the landscape in it – “Golden Podlesie” (“podlesie” is an underwood); another one, 68 kg., was called “Rostov the Great” after the Old Russian town, because inclusions of white crystals of albite and fluorite produce three-dimensioned picture resembling a town. At the Volhynskoye deposit the size of topazes sometimes is rather large. Among unique findings we should mention a light blue topaz, 2.11 kg., which was called “A.E. Fersman” after the famous Russian researcher. In 1965, among 100 extracted crystals with general weight 500 kg. one had a transparent upper part and the weight of 117 kg. and the size of 82x37x35 cm. It’s a pity but it was not kept. In 1967, a unique in purity topaz was extracted there, 110 kg. In Tadzhikistan, in the East Pamirs Mts., in area Murghob, near Rangkul’ Lake, the pegmatite deposits Mika, Amazonitovoye and Pegmatite-3 were discovered. There, in amazonite pegmatite pale blue topazes were found, and in miarolitic pegmatites – colorless and golden-yellow ones with coloring fading on light, up to 10x5 cm. In greisens crystals of topazes usually are of the mall size – up to 8x4 cm. In Central Kazakhstan colorless and light blue topazes of jewelry are found in pegmatites and greisens at the deposits Aqshataü, Bektau-Ata, Delbegetei, Nura-Taldy and Oratau. In Kyrgyzstan the Tur-Suy topaz deposit was discovered in the Terskey Ala-Too Ridge. In Mongolia, the north from the railway station of Khara Airag knows at the deposits Gorikho, Dzun-Bain, and on the pegmatite field Khulh del Ula, findings of topazes of gem-quality.

In Europe for long the only source of gem-quality topaz has been the deposit Schneckenstein, Germany, discovered in 1737, in the Ertzgebirge, Saxony. Till 1880, mainly wine-yellow topazes, up to 10 cm. long, were extracted there. Since 1937, this deposit has been a mineralogical national park. Besides, topazes were found in Great Britain, at the Devon, and Morn Mts., Ireland. It was found in Finland – at the deposit Eräjärvi, near Tampere; in South Norway, at the Iveland deposit, where half-transparent topaz, up to 60 kg., 48x35x20 cm. in size. In Sweden, at the deposits Finnbo and Broddbo, near Falun, Dalarnas, phisalith – translucent yellow topaz was found. Small crystals of topaz as collection material were found in alpine veins of Switzerland.

In Africa, topaz deposits are in Zimbabwe, Namibia, and Nigeria also on Madagascar. In Zimbabwe (form. Southern Rhodesia), the St Anna deposit, near Miami, is the main source of blue topaz. There, in weathered pegmatites, topaz crystals up to 5-6 cm. long, more rarely up to 10 cm., are extracted. In Namibia blue topaz is found at the Spitzkopje deposit, and together with beryl – in pegmatite Erongo. In Nigeria, on the Jos Plateau, at Timber Creek greisen deposit with pale colored topaz up to 10 cm., which is extracted at placers as pebbles. In the South Africa, in pegmatite of the Baviaans deposit, near Kakamas, Northern Cape Prov., they found a crystal of topaz 1 m. long. On Madagascar, topaz deposits with crystals up to 10 cm. long are situated in the southern and central parts of the island, for instance, near the Makhabo settlement, Andriamen area. In Mozambique, deposits of topaz in pegmatites are concentrated in the Alto Ligonha region, some 3,000 m2 . A typical deposit there is Muiane, near Gilé.

In Australia, topaz is extracted in New South Wales, at the deposits Emmaville, Tinga and others, as well as in the region of Oban Kukabukra, to the east from Garra. The biggest gem-quality light blue topaz from that region was 184 ct.; and in the region of Maji a fragment of light blue-green crystal, more than 1 kg., was found. In the Western part of Australia deposits of half-transparent light blue topaz are known. Similar deposits are in Queensland and on Tasmania. In Asia, topazes were extracted in Afghanistan, at the deposits Pïch, the Laghman Prov. In Pakistan, hydrothermal veins with pink-violet and raspberry-red topazes, up to 7.5 cm. long, are extracted at the deposits Ghundao Hill and Kãtlang. They are situated in the North-West Prov., 60 km. from Peshavar. Those topazes are no more than 3x0.5 cm. in size; the most weight of a gem-quality crystal was 135 gm. They cut stones up to 5 ct., and the biggest one was 37.76 ct. In India, in the Jammu and Kashmir State (disputed area) they extract wine-rose and golden topazes in the Dassu area., at the Niyit Bruk deposit, and also in the Skardu Dist. Such stones are also in the states Bihar, Orissa and Rajasthan. In Sri Lanka and Myanmar topazes are extracted at placers together with other gemstones. In Sri Lanka there is also the large of topaz deposit Polwatta, near Matale. In Japan, crystals topaz up to 15x10x7 cm. at Takayama deposit, Gifu Pref., is known; crystals up to 4x3 cm. occur at Tanokamiyama Shiga Pref. There are some mentions about topaz deposits in China.

In the countries of America the largest deposits of topaz are in Brazil, in the states of Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, Bahia and Goiás. In 1721, in Minas Gerais, at the diamond fields near Diamantina, the first pebbles of colorless topaz were found; it received the trade name “pingos d’agoa” – water droplet. In 1768, topaz was found near Oro Prêto, in pegmatites of the Capão da Lapa deposit, and then in the region of Virgem da Lapa. There pale yellow to dark yellow topazes dominated, and at the Saramegnia mine also orange-brown to orange-red imperial topazes, up to 20 cm. long, were found. They are still known only in that region. Besides, light brown, pink, violet, and more rare – red and cherry-red varieties are found. They are usually short columnar; their average size is about 4x1 cm., and the biggest crystals are up to 30 cm. long and 5-10 cm. in cross-section. In the region of Teophilo Otoni they found almost transparent crystals of topaz, up to 60 cm. long. At the Rodrigo Silva deposit topazes of gem-quality were extracted, and at the Antônio Pereira deposit the biggest crystal of golden topaz was found – 50 cm. long. In the region of Araçuai, in pegmatites of the Shanda mine, beside colorless and light blue topazes they found golden topazes, up to 50 kg., from which cut stones up to 100 ct. were made. At the Fazenda do Funil deposit, Santa Maria de Itabira region, a topaz crystal and 271 kg. was extracted. In the Rio de Janeiro State, on the Marambahia Penin., light blue and colorless topazes are extracted. In the Espírito Santo State at the São Domingos mine, biggest known topaz crystals up to 350 tons was found.

In the U.S.A. topazes are found in miarolitic pegmatites. In Colorado, at the deposits Climax, Lake Co.; Nathrop, Chaffee Co.; Pike’s Peak, El Paco Co. and others gem-quality wine-yellow, light blue and colorless crystals topaz up to 12 cm. were extracted. The biggest crystal was found at the Glen Cow deposit; it was 120x60 cm. in size; a cut stone, 368.5 ct., was made from it. In California, near Ramona, at the Little Three deposit, they found colorless and light bluish California topazes, which are called also  Lily Mt. topazes. In Texas, the best in purity and transparency colorless and blue topazes at the Llano deposit, Mason Co. is found. In Tennessee from a topaz crystal at the Stritter deposit a cut stone was made, 333.5 ct. In the Utah, to the south from Great Salt Lake, Thomas Range, there are hydrothermal deposits of topaz in rhyolites. Wine-yellow, brown-orange, sometimes rose crystals up to 8 cm. are found there, which loose their color in the sunlight. In the eastern part of the country, in Maine, there are the deposits of topaz Popperham and Stoneham with colorless and light blue topazes, up to 10 cm. long. In New Hampshire, at the deposits Boldface Mt. and Convey yellow and light brown crackled topazes, up to 10 cm. long, were found. The weight of cut stones there was not bigger than 10 ct. In Virginia, near Richmond, at the mica deposit Herb-2, Powhattan Co., the biggest in North America colorless and absolutely transparent topaz was found; 30x8 cm. in size, 4.5 kg. In Mexico, in the San Luis Potosí State at the deposits Tepetates and Serritos, in rhyolites they extract rose topaz crystals, up to 15 cm. long. In the Durango State, at the La Ventilla deposit topazes of golden color were extracted, and in the Guanojuato State – colorless ones. In Colombia deposits of topaz are in the Caceta Dept., in the upper reaches of the Caceta River.

Unique Crystals. In Norway, big non-transparent topaz crystal 62 kg. was found, at the Soetersdal deposit; it is kept in the British Museum, London now. In the Ukraine, in pegmatites of Volhynia, according a unique fragment, which was found there, some crystals could reach 200 kg. and 1 m. in length. Findings of big topaz crystals are often in Brazil. At the Fazenda do Funil deposit, near Santa Maria de Itabira, a topaz 270.3 kg. was found, which is exhibited in the AMNH., N.Y., now. In 1987, in Minas Gerais a giant crystal of topaz, 2x1.5 m. in size, was found, which was evaluated in $3 million. Five months later, a bigger crystal was found – 5.8 ton, 2x1.8 m. in size, evaluated in $15-20 million. Among the unique findings of topazes of gem-quality we should mention an imperial topaz from Minas Gerais, Brazil, and 13 cm. long. At the exhibition in Tucson, the U.S.A., in 1997, it was evaluated in $4,000. Unique topazes decorate expositions of many museums. In the Museum Earth State Moscow Univ. there is a crystal 68 kg., 27.5x38x38 cm. in size, from the Volhynskoye deposit in the Ukraine. In the Kunst. Hist. Museum, Vienna, there is a transparent yellow topaz, 117 kg. and 43x41x40 cm. in size, extracted in Brazil in 1974. In the Museum of the Florence Univ., Italy, there is a pink topaz from Brazil, 150 kg. In the AMNH, N.Y., there is a transparent topaz from the Minas Gerais, Brazil, 300 kg., 80x60x60 cm. in size, (also see App. 11).

Synonyms. Schorl-like beryl | Chrysolithos, anc. Gk. | Pasion, obs. | Picnite, from Gk. “pyknos” – solid | Tyageloves, obs., Ural | ~ topaz: noble ~, precious ~, Russian ~, after the discovery location on the eastern slope of the Urals; Ural ~, after the discovery location at the Urals, Russia; white ~. | Tumpas, Old Russ. | Weisser stangenschörl, Germ. | Stangenstein.

Colorless – Brilliant |~ diamond: Flinders ~, from Tasmania, Australia; Killecrankie ~, from Tasmania, Australia; Mogok ~, after the discovery location near Mogok, Myanmar; Saxon ~, from Germany; Siberia ~, Russia; slaveš ~, from Brazil; Tasmanian ~, from Tasmania, Australia; Ural ~, from the Urals, Russia | Leucolite, from Gk. | Sklavendiamant, from Brazil | Bristol stone | Killekranskiy stone, from Tasmania, Australia.

Rose – Brazilian ruby | Iris, annealed Brazilian topaz.

Reddish-orange – Ionia, Old Russ. | Cherry topaz,after the color of the wine | Imperial topaz | Uruguay topaz, annealed, from Uruguay.

Yellow – Bedjasi, Arabic trade name for gemstones of golden-yellow color | Madagascar citrine | Yellow jagut, Arabic | Phisalith, from Gk. “physalis” – phial | ~ topaz: Brazilian ~, Indian ~, from Sri Lanka; Saxon ~, after the discovery location in Saxony, Germany; Spanish ~, yellow ~.

Yellow-green – Bohemian aquamarine | Saxon chrysolite.

Green – Brazilian aquamarine | Ancient chrysolite | Perdell (peredell), yellow-green | ~ topaz: aquamarine ~, Arabian ~, chrysolite ~, green ~, irradiated; perdell ~, obs.

Blue – Nerchinskiy aquamarine, from Transbaikalia, Russia | Brazilian sapphire | Water sapphire | Sapphiras, local Brazilian name for topaz pebble | ~ topaz: California ~, after the discovery location in California, the U.S.A.; Colorado ~, after the discovery location in Colorado, the U.S.A.; king ~; Murzinka ~, after the discovery location in Murzinka mines, Russia; Tasmanian ~, from Tasmania, Australia, Tauridian ~, from the Murzinka mines, the Urals, Russia.

Quality improvement. The widespread method of quality improvement of topaz was it’s annealing in sand under the temperature 450-500°C. Nowadays, instead of magnesite sand is used. A jeweler from Paris Dumelle invented this method in 1750. Brown and wine-yellow topazes from some deposits became pink-violet, blue or colorless after it. Topazes with color changed with heating are called burnt topazes, or incinerated topazes. Pink topaz is received with the same method. After the X-rays irradiation color of discolored topazes is restored with some transformations. Nowadays, for the artificial transformation of color of topazes for commercial purposes they use electron, neutron and gamma rays irradiation. With gamma-irradiation with isotopes of Co60 they make yellow, brown, olive-green and light blue topaz from colorless one. Colorless topaz irradiated with electrons at accelerator with the energy 10-20 MV becomes brown, and after the following annealing under the temperature up to 200°C it transforms to sky blue topaz. The defect of this method is the risk to make cracks during annealing. Neutron irradiation of colorless topaz in a nuclear reactor gives intensive blue color – London blue topaz, or another one, which becomes intensive blue after annealing. Irradiation in a reactor under high temperature produces also ocean-green topaz. Its color is not stable; in the sunlight it soon becomes light blue – ocean-blue topaz. The defect of the reactor method is an added radioactivity; it takes time to weaken it. With the combined neutron and electron irradiation they receive American topaz or Swiss blue topaz. Another method is ionic implantation, or thermo-diffusive coloring of topaz into red-orange and red-violet color to imitate expensive imperial topaz. Covering film received with this method is 5-7 micron thick and it makes the luster of a cut stone brighter. One more method of quality improvement is artificial covering of cut stones with fine films of precious metals. With this method they receive intensive blue, purple and emerald-green color – Tanzine topaz. Another type of films gives polychromatic color with chatoyancyfire topaz.

Cut Gems. Processing of topaz is held very carefully because of complete joints in it. Its facet is mainly step-cut or marquise-cut for colorless varieties the best is brilliant-cut. In that case the orientation of the table facet should be parallel to the flatness of joints. Topazes with inclusions are processed in cabochons. Examples of the unique cut topazes are in the App. 12. Among the unique work of art with big facet topazes we should mention the order of the “Golden Fleece”, which was instituted by the Duke of Burgundy Philip the Kind in 1429. Persons from royal families were honored with it. Now in the list of those, who received this order there are 61 chevaliers. The upper part of this order usually contains three big gemstones. In the D.F.R., Moscow, Russia, there is such order with five lilac Brazilian topazes, from 1.4x1.1 to 3.3x2.4 cm. in size. In the Grün. Gew., Dresden, Germany, there is three samples of this order: with three golden topazes, with three emeralds and with three Bohemian garnets – pyrops. Big gemstones in this order were encircled with brilliants. A legendary adornment with topaz was the “Necklace of Gizela” – a daughter of the King of France Charles III; it was lost in Berlin during the World War II. In the middle of the 19th cent., in France topazes became popular thanks to the jeweler Mauri, who had made a model in the shape of the heart from topaz with brilliants – the “Heart of Manon Lesco”. Among other unique jewelries with topazes a necklace of the Brazilian firm “H. Stern” is – with an imperial topaz 65.5 ct., encircled with brilliants (general weight is 10 ct.) and mounted in black, white and yellow gold. In the magical watches of the House of Cartier, among other gemstones, there was a big crystal of faceted topaz. In Russia, the crown of the wife of the Tsar Fedor Ioannovich – Irina Godunova – was decorated with golden topazes and amethysts. In the collection of gems of the State Hermitage, SPb., Russia, there are several cameos on topaz, including a cameo with a depiction of the head of Gneius Pompey, Italy, 12th cent., and 1.5x1.3 cm. in size. In the epoch of Catherine the Great, in Russia topazes were not in fashion, but they became popular in the reign of Alexander I. On the mosaic “Map the U.S.S.R.”, which received the Grand prix in 1937 at the World Show in Paris, facet topazes pointed the route of the drift of the station “The North Pole I” in the Arctic ocean in 1938.

Famous Stones. (See App. 12). From blue, yellow and colorless topazes of Brazil they received unique in size cut stones: from red one – up to 70 ct., from or- ange one – up to 20 ct., and extremely rare up to 30 ct. In the Narodni Museum, Prague, Czech Rep., there is a blue topaz from Brazil, step-cut 1464 ct. In the crown of Portugal there is unusually pure blue topaz from Brazil, step-cut 1680 ct.; it was kept for a diamond for long and was known as the “Diamond of Braganza”. It was found near Prêto in Brazil in 1740. At one of the Tucson shows in the U.S.A. a blue faceted topaz, 16,000 ct., was exhibited. This big stone with 221 facets was made from the crystal, 334 kg. It was evaluated in $1,066,350. In the AMNH, N.Y., there is the light blue topaz “Princess of Brazil”, 21,327 ct. (4.265 kg.), from the region of Teophilo Otoni in Minas Gerais, Brazil. In the Smiths. Inst., Wash., there is one of the biggest faceted topazes – “Golden American Topaz”, in the form of a prism with 172 facets, 22,892.5 ct., and 175.3x149.4x93.4 mm. in size. According the information of mass media, the association of jewelers gifted the “Blue Royal Topaz” to the king of Thailand in honor of the 50th anniversary of his coronation. The weight of this stone before facet was 30,000 ct., the size – 17.5x12.5 cm. It was cut with 950 facets. In this quantity number 9 means, that the king is the 9 means, that the king was the ninth in the Chakri dynasty, and 50 was the number of years of his reign.

Legends. As a talisman, topaz strengthens smartness, attracts friendship of other people, improves family life, and helps to become rich and to influence on people as well as to clear up intrigues. As an amulet, topaz protects against “black eye”, infidelity and nervous diseases. Topaz is a lucky stone for those, who were born in November under the sign of Scorpio. In India, rose topaz symbolizes hope, golden one – friendship and help. Europeans treat golden topaz as a symbol of complete happiness. The Christian church declared topaz to be a stone of St Jacob the Junior. In the U.S.A. blue topaz serves an official emblem of the Texas State.

Synthesis. Since 1976, the method of producing of synthetic topaz has been known; but it didn’t receive commercial effect because it was not profitable. Recent years, only they began to use hydrothermal synthesis for experimental producing of synthetic imperial topaz, which cost became reasonable from the commercial point of view.

Similar Gemstones & Imitations. Topaz looks like diamond, noble beryl, brazilianite, danburite, kunzite, quartz, orthoclase, ruby, sapphire, tourmaline, phenakite, fluorite, chrysoberyl, zircon and spinel. Widespread imitation of topaz is yellow quartzcitrine. For imitation also apatite, fluorite and transparent yellow orthoclase are used. Among synthetic materials for imitation of imperial topaz they use synthetic imperial topaz and rose-orange synthetic corundum.