Russian Gemstones Encyclopedia

Vladimir Bukanov. Russian Gemstones Encyclopedia



EMERALD (Smaragd—Émeraude—»зумруд), from old. Arabic zumurrud. Boecius de Boodt (1609) believed that from Arabic came such terms as Gk. – smaragdos, Lat. – smaragdus, Ital. – smeraldo, Span. – esmerald (esmeralda), Old. Fr. e(s)meraud, Semitic – “baraq”, lustre.

Composition & Properties. (See beryl). Emerald is a kind of beryl, which has bright green in color – it depends on the admixture of chromium. It is one of the most precious minerals known from the ancient times. From the gemological point of view, emeralds can be divided into four groups: 1) Unique in color and pureness, which are to be evaluated by experts. 2) Transparent gem-quality material for cutting. 3) Translucent gem-quality material, which can be cut as a cabochon. 4) Druses crystals for collections. There are two types of emerald: colored only with chromium, and those which are colored not only with chromium but also with vanadium. Shades of green color of emeralds depend on impurity of elements of variable valency: manganese, iron, titanium, vanadium, cobalt, nickel, influencing on absorption of light in seen area. Tones have an impact at the value of emeralds, that’s why standards and colorimetric tables are used. Tones help to identify the place of origin of emeralds. For example, Colombian emerald has bluish tone, and emeralds from the Urals, Brazil and Madagascar have typical yellowish shade. Color of emerald is stable under annealing and irradiation. It is typical for this stone to have color zones, more often perpendicular to the longitude of crystals – it is called axis zones, more rare along crystals – it is called ring zones (See beryl). Outside zones of crystals are always more pale colored. Emeralds usually have a short-columnar shape, their length is not more than 35 cm., and their weight is up to 5 kg. As a rule, transparent crystals, or parts of crystals, which are reasonable for cut, are not more than 5 cm. in cross-section. Sometimes there are crystals with sectorial structure on the plane perpendicular to the longitude, with differentiation of color and admixtures in the shape of a six-radial star. Such color effect is called pseudoasterism, or epyasterism. These short-columnar crystals look like a gear wheel, that’s why they are called trapiche emerald. Besides, sometimes there are found emeralds with a real asterism in the shape of a six-radial star. In beryl gas-liquid inclusions are usually focused on long axis of crystals whereas it is not typical of emeralds. The list of mineral admixtures, which can be found in emeralds and could interest gemologists, is in the App.7. In gem-quality emerald crystals in the surrounding rocks are used – they are called emerald matrix or emerald verde. In Colombia they are called moralla.

Deposits. (See also beryl). Emeralds are found in granite pegmatites, in hydrothermal-metasomatic and low-temperature hydrothermal veins. They are preserved well in the fields. Thus pegmatite deposits are not numerous and have no industrial value. The general volume of the world extraction of emeralds in the price (according the data of 1990) was about $1 billion.

In 1830, in Russia, 30 km. to the north-east of Yekaterinburg, Izumrudnye kopi (Emerald Mines) of the Urals were found. From that moment till 1917 about 16-20 tons of materials for cutting were extracted there. Besides, about 3 ton of alexandrite and the same quantity of phenakite were extracted additionally. At the Izumrudnye kopi there are known six main deposits: Malyshevskoye (form. Mariinskoye), Pervomaiskoye (form. Troitskoye), Krupskoye (form. Liblinskoye), Sverdlovskoye (form. Sretenskoye), Cheremshanskoye, Krasnobolotnoye and about a dozen of small deposits. Emeralds are linked everywhere with the veins of phlogopite mica, where emeralds are in the phlogopite zone, which frames a plagioclase nucleus. Alexandrite and phenakite, which accompany emerald, are in the outside chlorite zones of the veins. Emerald can be found in crystals, as a rule, not more than 5x1.5x1 cm., more rare – to 20x15 cm. They have many cracks and inclusions of scales of phlogopite and talc, needles of actinolite and tourmaline. Emerald’s color is from greenish to rich bright green. The richest part of the Izumrudnye kopi was the Mariinskoye deposit. There also transparent green tourmalines were found.

In 1967, in the Ukraine, in the Western Priazovie territory, at the Krutaya Balka deposit, Zaporozhskiy Region, crystals of emerald up to 2 cm. were found in rare metal pegmatites. In Kazakhstan, emerald-holding greisens are in the Charskiy Dist. of the Semopalatinsk Region, at the Delbegetei deposit. There are little bluish emeralds there; the biggest ones are up to 2 cm. long. In 1967, emerald mineralization was discovered at the Drazhilovskoye deposit of tungsten and molybdenum in the South Zauralie territory. There are data on the emerald discoveries in Mongolia. In Austria, the Habachtal deposit in Tyrol has been known since the Middle Ages. Now it is worked out. There short-columnar crystals of emerald were extracted from mica schists, not more than 1.5x2.5 cm. For them were typical inclusions of actinolite, micas, tourmaline, epidote, titanite and rutile. Later, the emerald deposit near Salzburg, Upper Austria (Oberösterreich), was found. It is proved that a big emerald in the royal crown of France, which was made in the 13th cent., is equal to Austrian emerald from the Salzburg Alps. In Norway the small emerald locality Eidsvoll and Kierringeroe is in the southern part of the country, not far from Oslo, in mica pegmatites. They are full of mineral inclusions, among which we can stress halftransparent crystals of calcite. In Bulgaria, emeralds are found in rare metal pegmatites in the north-western part of the Rodopes, in the Urdine Lakes Region.

In Egypt, in the regions of Wädï Nurgus, there was the most ancient of Tsarina Cleopatra Djebel Sikait emerald mine but now it is worked out. Small emerald deposits are in the western part of Libya near Ghadämis, and in the neighboring Algeria. In South Africa emerald deposits were opened in 1927. The first was the Somerset deposit in the Northern Prov., near Leydsdorp. Then, at the same region, some small deposits were found: Gravelotte, New Cheever, Cobra and others. Transvaal emerald has columnar shape up to 5 cm. long, sometimes lamellar structure and many cracks. In 1956, at the Somerset deposit, as an exclusion, a unique emerald was found – its size was 14x35 cm.; about 24,000 ct. of cut material was received from it. In 1956-1960, in Zimbabwe, to the southwest from Maswingo (form. Fort Victoria) a group of emerald deposits was opened, including Sandawana, Mustard, Pepper and others. A bit later, to the northwest from Bulawayo another group of deposits was opened: Mberengwa (Belingwe), Machinje and others. The biggest one is Sandawana. Emeralds from Zimbabwe have bright color, rather small size (but sometimes they are up to 3 cm. long), usually cut emeralds are not more than 1 ct. It is typical for them color zones with different intensity of tones, and inclusions of tremolite, garnets and feldspars. In 1967, in Zambia, to the southwest from Kitwe, on the Miku River near its confluence with the Kafue River, works at the Miku mines were reestablished – this deposit was found in 1931. Emerald crystals to 20 cm. long were found there, but because of big quantity of mica inclusions the extraction was stopped. Not far from it the Kafubu deposit was opened, where the best in Africa transparent crystals of emerald were found – up to 10 cm. long and up to 130 ct. Cut stones have the weight up to 15 ct. This deposit made Zambia the biggest supplier of emeralds at the world market. In Mozambique there are a number of small emerald deposits such as Niama, Maria, Tresh, Marrupino and others in the Alto Ligonha region, where mainly small but bright colored emeralds are extracted. At one of the deposits near Gilé emerald crystals were up to 25 cm. long and up to 3 cm. in cross-section. In 1969, in Tanzania, near Arusha, on Manyara Lake, the deposits of pale colored emeralds of cabochon quality with inclusions of biotite were opened. Recent years, in Somali, emerald deposits were opened not far from its northwestern frontier, in the region of Borama. Besides, emeralds are extracted in Nigeria at the Jos Plateau, where the deposit of bluish-green zone-colored emeralds to 15 cm. long was found. In Ghana, in the region of Ashanti, the emerald deposit Mampong was opened. On Madagascar, in the Fianarantsoa Prov. at the southeastern coast, near the Kianjavato settlement, the Ankadilalana deposit with bluish-green emeralds was opened in 1990. There the weight of extracted emeralds in some nests was up to 72 kg., including high-quality crystals up to 500 gm. weight. At the same coast, between Manakara and Mananjary, some small emerald deposits were opened in the early of 1980-s.

In China, recently fine specimens with emerald crystals to 15 cm. have been found near Wenshan and Malipo, Yunnan Prov. In India emeralds were extracted in the ancient times. In the south of the country, in Tamil Nädu, near Chennai (form. Madras) there are deposits Padgur and Kängayam. In 1943-1955, in Rajasthan, between Ajmere and Udaipur, along the Aravali Ridge, the chain of emerald deposits in chlorite schists in the extent 200 km. long was discovered. In the north of the state there are deposits Rajgarh and Bubani, in the south – deposits Kaliguman, Tekhi, Gumgurha and others. All of them are linked with quartzite-schists layer. Emeralds have many cracks; the best of them have velvet thick green color. It is typical for them to have channels with gas-liquid inclusions, which are enhanced along crystals, as well as ingrown lines of biotite, fuchsite and apatite. In 1958, in the North-Western Prov. of Pakistan, in the changed ophiolites of the Swat River valley, the emerald Mingaora deposit was opened; and in 1982, three deposits more – Makhad, Punjab Prov., and Güjar Kili, North-West Frontier Prov., later other deposits were found. The color of Pakistan emerald can be from pale to thick green with obvious pleochroism from dark-bluish to yellowish tones. These stones received an international recognition at the world market thanks to their intensive color and high level of transparency, in spite the cut stones are rare more than 2 ct. In 1970-s, in Afghanistan, in the Kapisa Prov. the emerald deposit in the Panjshir Valley was opened. Those emeralds have intensive dark-green color; they are bigger and more pure then stones from Pakistan. Among them there are many crystals more than 10 ct. At the Buzmal mine a lot of 10 crystals with the general weight 374.5 ct. was found, including one crystal 190.5 ct. Besides, emeralds were found sometimes in the Kunar Prov., and at the Chãrbãgh deposit, Rïgestän Prov. The quality of emeralds from Afghanistan and Pakistan is similar to the quality of the stones from Muzo mines, Colombia. According the results of the recent researches the content of isotopes of oxygen in emerald is a unique one for every deposit. It is known that to Ancient Rome emeralds came also from the fields of Pakistan. However, indigenous deposits were opened there only in the 20th cent. In 1909, in Western Australia, 650 km. to the north-east from Perth, the emerald deposits Poona and Menzies in pegmatites were found. At the same region at the deposits Uada-Uada and Murchison emeralds were extracted. In New South Wales emeralds were additional extracted materials at the Emerald mine and the Heffernan tungsten mine, near Torrington. Australian emeralds are enough transparent, but colored too pale; there are crystals to 5 ct., and a part of them are classified as green beryl.

In Brazil, the first emeralds were discovered in Pirajá, near Brumado (form. Bom Jesus das Meiras), in the Serra das Eguas in Bahia State. But the real “emerald boom” happened in 1963, when four emerald regions were opened. Two of them are situated in Bahia, where in the north, near Senior do Bonfine, the deposits Carnaíba, Salininha and Sokoto were found. In the southern part of the same state there are deposits Akudk Sossego and Fazenda do Pombo near Brumado and Vittoria da Conquist. The third emerald region is in Minas Gerais. There to the east from Belo Horizonte the deposits Itabira, Belmont, Capoeirana, Minas das Canores and the fields in the upper reaches of the Paranaiba River were found. The fourth region is in the central part of the Goiás State – there are deposits Santa Teresinha, Porangatu, Pela-Ema, Mara-Rose and Pirenópolis. Emeralds are extracted in the Ceará State at the Fazenda Boa Esperança deposit, near Taua, and also in the Espírito Santo State. The most part of these emeralds are small, to 2 cm. long, light colored and apple green. Since the moment of the beginning of emerald extraction at one of the biggest deposits Santa Teresinha, Goiás, in 1981, Brazil has become one of the world leaders in the volume of extracted emeralds. The size of these crystals is not more than 1 cm. long, after the cut they are not more than 1 ct. The most part of these emeralds are characterized with light color and pleochroism from dark and bluish-green to pale yellowish-green. Typical inclusions for these stones, especially for the triples of trapiche emeralds, are dolomite and picotite. In Minas Gerais, at the Itabira deposit emeralds have an effect of cat’s-eye, and at the Capoeirana deposit the size of crystals is to 10 cm. For Brazilian emeralds it is typical to have zone differentiation and inclusions of pyrite, biotite, talc and dolomite. In the U.S.A. there are known some small emerald deposits, mainly in permatites, including an open one – Rist near Hiddenite, which was opened in North Carolina in 1880, and also the Crabtree deposit in Alexander Co. In 1882, at the Rist deposit a crystal “Hiddenite”, 1,276 ct., was found; and in 1980 – an emerald of 1000 ct., which was evaluated in $30,000. But the most part of local rough material had only collection value. The most typical inclusions for these emeralds are micro crystals of quartz. There also were found so-called matrix emerald in white albitite.

The most famous in the world now there are emerald deposits in Colombia, South America. In spite of the great amount of emerald deposits throughout the world, the priorities in quality and volume of extracted rough material are at the site of Colombia. These deposits were known even before the Spanish conquistadors came to the territory of modern Colombia. One of them is situated in the region of Rio Somondoko (now Chivor) – it was found in 1537; another one – Muzo was opened in 1564. Since 1567, works at these deposits have been begun. In 150 km. to the north-east from Bogotá, at the territory of the Boyaká Dept. and Cundinamarca, two emerald-holding regions were opened. Western region in the Itoko River valley includes such deposits as Muzo, Cosquez and Peña Blanca. Eastern region, the Guavis River basin, includes such deposits as Chivor, Buena Vista, El Toro, El Diamante, Gachala (Vegas de San Juan), and Las Cruses. The most part of them – it’s mineralized zones in carbonate-schists layer. Besides, in 1970-s, in this region the fields of emeralds near Yakopi were found, and, recent years, the Maripí deposit was used actively. Crystals of Colombian emeralds are short-columnar, on the average up to 3 cm. long. Rarely bigger crystals were found – up to 10-15 cm. Very characteristic for this region are flat triplets, partly filled with inclusions, which are concentrated along the edges of joint crystals. Their weight can be up to 28 ct. and even more. They look like gear wheel, that’s why they are called in Span. trapiche emeralds. The color of emeralds is from light green to thick green with obvious pleochroism. For emeralds from the Cosquez deposit homogenous intensive color and bluish tone are typical. At the Muzo deposit emeralds have middle or dark green color with yellowish tone. At the Chivor mine emeralds have less intensive green color with slight bluish tone. Emeralds from Colombia are the most beautiful in pureness and intensity of color. Typical inclusions are: albite and pyrite, as well as long bubbles with three-phase inclusions – according the zones of growth and along the crystal shapes.

Unique findings. One of the first findings in the Urals was a group of joint crystals of emerald, 2,226 gm. weight and 18.5 cm. long. Now this sample is called “Cochubey’s Emerald” and exhibited in the Fersman’s Museum, Moscow. Sometimes it is identified as the lost “Cocovin’s Emerald”, which weight was 409.5 gm. In the collection of the AMNH, N.Y. there is a transparent emerald crystal from the Urals, 2,800 ct., and 11.5x6 cm. In 1989, at the Malyshevskiy mine, the Urals, a druse later called “Finding of the Century”, or “Miner’s Glory” was found; its weight was 6,550 gm.; it consisted of 20 crystals. Gem-quality material made from it was not less than 9,000 ct. The full list of the unique findings of crystals at that deposit is in the App. 8. The biggest emeralds are in museums, mainly in Colombia. In 1992, at the exposition in the Nat. Hist. Museum, Denver, a perfect crystal “Angel of the Andes” was exhibited; it was found at the Cosquez deposit, Colombia, its size was 10x5 cm. There is a transparent bright green crystal of emerald, 8 cm. long and 6 cm. in cross-section, 1,759 ct., in the Bank of the Rep. Colombia in Bogotá. In Kunst. Hist. Museum Vienna, there is a “Montezuma Emerald”, which was the propriety of the ruler of Aztecs. Its weight is 2,205 ct., but really it is a group of joint crystals, 18x13 cm. in size, found at the Chivor deposit, Colombia. The biggest emerald, 14x35 cm. in size, was found in South Africa, at the Somerset mine in 1956. The transparent part of it only had the weight 24,000 ct. Among the unique crystals we can call also the “Emerald of Patricius”, which was named in the honor of St Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland – the country, which refers to as “Emerald Isle”. Its size is 8x5,5 cm., weight is 660 ct.; in 1921, it was sold at the price $60,000. More complete list of the unique emerald crystals is in the App. 9.

Synonyms. Canutillos, Span. name for high quality stones from Colombia | Chalchihuitl, Mexican name | Chrysoberyllus, Old | Brazilian chrysolite | Commercial Chrysolite | Chrysolitus, Old | Chrysoprasus, Pliny the Elder | Green gold, local name in Colombia | Green ice, local name in Colombia | Ismaragd, Old | Leucoberyl | Marakata, local name in India, Hindu | Moralla (morallon, morella, moryja) | Takin, in India.

Names according the place of the finding. ~ emerald (smaragd): Afghani ~, African ~, Australian ~, Austrian ~, Bactrian ~, possibly Afghani emerald, because modern Afghanistan and Tadzhikistan were the parts of Baktria; Bahia ~, Brazilian ~, Chivor ~, according the deposit in Colombia; Cleopatra ~, mines of the Queen Cleopatra; Coptic ~, syn. Egyptian, because Egyptian Christians were called Copts in Ancient Rome; Cosquez ~, according the Cosquez deposit in Colombia; Egyptian ~, Ethiopian ~, syn. Egyptian; European ~, Inca ~, Leydsdorp ~, according the place in South Africa; Madagascar ~, Minas Gerais ~, Muzo ~, according the deposit in Colombia; noble ~, precious ~, rhombohedral ~, Russian ~, according the place of the finding in the Urals; Salininha ~, according the deposit in Brazil; Sandawana ~, according the deposit in Zimbabwe; Scythian ~, may be it is Ural emerald, because Scythia was a state, which took place from the Black Sea to the Urals at the time of Pliny the Elder; Siberian ~, from the Urals; Somondoco ~, according the deposit in Colombia; Transvaal ~, according the place in South Africa; trapiche ~, Ural ~. | Peruvian stone.

Quality improvement. The easiest and the widespread method of quality improvement of emeralds is their immersion with oil – oiled emerald. In that case it is prohibited to use colored oils. Besides it, emerald can be immersed with Canadian balm and epoxy resin with a hardener. In the last case, such emerald is called stabilized emerald, because this immersion is irreversible. Nowadays, up to 90% of Colombian emeralds are improved in such a way.

Cut Gems. Ancient world evaluated emeralds among the most precious gems. They were extracted at the famous mines of the Queen Cleopatra about 3.5 thousand years B.C. – those mines were situated in the desert region of Upper Egypt, 200 km. to the east from Nile, to the north-east from ancient Sien (now Assuan). During 3,000 years Arabs and Turks exploited by Egyptians, Greek, Romans, and those mine later. An archaeologist F. Cailliaud rediscovered them in 1816; he has found more than 1000 underground mines in the waterless mountains and the ruins of a Greek city with three temples. That’s why emeralds were very popular in Ancient Greece. We know about it from dialogues by Plato (428-347 B.C.), the treatise “On stones” by Theophrastus (372-287 B.C.) and the legend about the ring of Policratus, the ruler of Sámos Is. (about 537- 522 B.C.), where smaragd was mentioned. At the Cleopatra’s Mines the works were held at the times of Arabic caliphate till 1237, and the latest extractions took place in 1740. Later, when high quality emeralds from Colombia appeared, the Cleopatra’s Mines were abandoned. In Ancient India emerald was known not later than 1.5 thousands years B.C. In 1502, L. Camille in the book “Stones’ Mirror” declared that emeralds came from India. They are often among jewelries from the treasures of the Great Moguls. The Kirby-grip in the turban of the Great Mogul Babur was decorated with three wonderful emeralds. The biggest one from them had 490 ct. The egg-shaped emerald “Iranian”, 175 ct., was in the crown of Persian Shahs. Another unique polished emerald, 225 ct. was in the throne of the Persian Prince Näder Shäh. In Turkey, in the Topkapi Museum, Istanbul, there are many big emerald cabochons, from 100 to 300 ct., as well as faceted stones 100 and 110 ct.

Jewelers received a wide access to emeralds in the end of the 15th cent. only, after the conquering of Mexico, when stolen treasures of Aztecs were transferred to Europe. Colombian emeralds at the Spanish market were called Spanish emerald, Mexican emerald and Peruvian emerald. Among the first facet Peruvian emerald we should mention five samples of small plastic of Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés (1485-1547). One of them was made as a bell with a tongue from big pearls, the second one – as a rose, the third one – as a horn, the fourth one – as a fish, the fifth one was the biggest and the most beautiful – it was made as a bowl with gold stem. Unfortunately, these unique masterpieces were lost at the shipwreck not far from Algeria coast. Another one lost emerald, which was called in the honor of Queen Isabel of Portugal “Queen Isabella”, was described by Hernán Cortés …”a crystal about a palm in the bottom part was hold in the Palace of Justice and was used for the measurement of guilt of the accused”. In 1993, that emerald was taken from the sea bottom near Florida as well as an emerald druse, 24,644 ct., and other emeralds, which general weight was 25,000 ct. Hernán Cortés had also vessels, which were cut from emeralds, 300,000 ducats in price. According the data of the Peruvian historic Garcilaco de la Vega, Indians worshiped a great emerald, which was cut as an ostrich egg. They brought for it small emeralds as offerings. That unique emerald was lost during its transportation to Europe.

In one of private collections in the U.S.A. there is an exquisitely cut Colombian “Emerald of Moguls”, which is made from a whole crystal as a plate, 5.1x3.5x1 cm. in size, 217.8 ct. On the front side of it a floristic ornament is cut, on the opposite side there is a citation from the Koran and the date – 1695. We should mention some masterpieces from South America: the gold Colombian “Crown of the Andes”, which was made in the end of the 16th cent. It was decorated with 453 emeralds, general weight 1,521 ct., including the biggest one – “Atahualpa”, 45 ct. Another Colombian jewelry of the cult character is the big, luxury monstrance, in which emeralds play the main role. It is 80 cm. height, 8.3 kg., and includes 1,758 gemstones – 1,485 from them are emeralds. One more unique masterpiece is the vessel for fragrances, which was faceted from the whole emerald crystal in 1642. The jeweler D. Miseroni from Milan made it. It is 10 cm. height, 2,681 ct. and is exhibited in the Kunst. Hist. Museum, Vienna. An example of using emeralds in glyptic is the gemma, 1x1.5 cm. in size, with a portrait of the French King Henry IV Coldorais made it in the 18th cent.. One of the first samples of Colombian emerald from the collection of the German Emperor Rudolf II was exhibited in Grün. Gew., Dresden. It was used in a sculpture “Savages’ Chief” – as an emerald druse on the tray. One of seven historical stones of the D.F.R., Moscow is a Colombian emerald cut as a plate with a step pattern of faceting, 136.25 ct. Its size is 36x32.5x60 mm. Later it was set into a brooch decorated with brilliants. At the same collection there is a locket with an emerald profile portrait of Catherine the Great. In the Armory Museum Kreml., Moscow there are two emeralds, 75 and 100 ct., which are set in the framework of the icon Our Lady of Vladimir (1657). Some modern jewelry can be also called unique according to the quantity of big emeralds. Such one is the emerald necklace by Cartier (1938), which was made for the actress M. Oberon. It includes 29 huge emeralds, general weight 1,300 ct., which are hanging at a diamond chain. Usually emeralds are faceted for jewelry purposes in a rectangular form with a step pattern of faceting, it is so called “emerald-cut”. The price of bright colored perfect stones (without any defects) can be higher than the price of diamonds of the same size. Half-transparent emerald crystals in the rock material – emerald verde are used for cabochons and in glyptic. For cabochon cut emerald sometimes is not divided from surrounding rock material, such stone is called matrix emerald.

Famous Stones. Cut emeralds more than 100 ct. are in treasure-houses of many countries and some private collections (App. 10). Spanish jewelers made the “Order of Saint Inquisition” from treasures of conquistadors. It is a round emerald cabochon in a circle of 40 other emeralds. Another masterpiece of church jewelry of the Colonial period is gold “Lettuce” (Span. la lechuga), which was made on the request of the Order of Jesuits in Bogotá in 1700-1707. It includes 1,486 emeralds, one Brazilian topaz, 62 Caribbean pearls, 168 amethysts from India, 28 diamonds from South Africa, and 13 sapphires from Ceylon and one sapphire from Thailand. In Russia the first emerald was found at the Izumrudnye kopi of the Urals. It had a pear shape and a weight 101.25 ct. and it was to belong of the Romanos’ dynasty. In the Smiths. Inst. Wash. there is two Colombian emeralds: one of them is a cabochon, 117 ct.; another one is oval, with diamond faceting, 157.5 ct. In the British Museum., London there is a faceted emerald, 161 ct., and 28 mm. in diameter. In the collection of the Victoria and Albert Museum, London, an emerald of one of the maharajas of Western India is exhibited. It is faceted in the form of a square “cushion” 31 mm. in cross-section, about 172 ct. In 1967 the Paris firm “Van Cleef & Arpels” has made a crown for the wife of a Iranian Shah with an exquisite emerald in 150 ct., encircled with big brilliants. There were 1,469 brilliants, 36 rubies, 36 emeralds and 105 pearls in the crown. In the treasure house of As-Sabach, the rulers of Kuwait, two unique faceted emeralds were hold. They were stolen during the Iraq invasion in 1990. The biggest from them was registered in the Guinness Book, because it had 86,136 ct. It was found at the Carnaíba deposit, Brazil, in 1974, and faceted in Hong Kong in 1982. In the Smiths. Inst. Wash. the “Necklace of Inquisition” is exhibited; it includes 15 large emeralds and more than 360 brilliants. During the 300 years of its history it belonged to the treasures of Spanish and later French court. With the time on the price of emerald usually grows. The highest price for a separate emerald, 19.77 ct., was $2,126,646. It is the highest price for a carat – $107,569 registered in the Guinness Book in 1993.

Legends. In Egypt emerald was considered as a stone of the goddess of fertility and the patroness of home fireplace – Isis. It is regarded as a source of multiple healing and magical powers. Pregnant women hold it, and then it was put into babies’ cradles. This stone is a talisman of lovers, young couples and poets. Warriors receive, bravery in battles from it. Babylonian astrologers linked emerald with the Zodiac sign of Cancer, and Byzantium and Gk. astrologers associated it with the sign of Taurus. Moslems treat emerald as a talisman, too. Arabs took it to Europe. In the Middle Ages emerald was considered as a sorcerers’ stone. In the cathedral in Munich a dragon from emerald is made, and St George spears him. The Church declared emerald as an anti demonian stone, a talisman of St John the Baptist. According Russian legends, emerald is a stone of wisdom, self-possession and hope. It was known as a mean against depression, high fever, leprosy and epilepsy, as well as against insomnia, insidious charms of love. It also considered as a source of long-lasting life and the gift of foresight. In Colombia emerald is a national symbol of the country.

Synthesis: Synthetic emerald was received at first in France in 1888; it was grown in flux of molten salts. In 1924, G. Espigue enhanced this method, and after it the firm “I.G. Farbenindustry” in Germany opened the industrial manufacturing of synthetic emerald under the trademark igmerald in 1934. Later, Nacken synthetic emeralds were produced according this technology in Idar-Oberstein; and since 1965 Zerfass synthetic emerald have been produced in Frankfurt. In the U.S.A. the firm of C. Chatham has begun such production since 1940. His product was called at first Chatham cultivated synthetic emerald, and since 1963 – created Chatham synthetic emerald. Since 1963 Gilson synthetic emerald has appeared at the jewelry market; at first it was produced in Switzerland. The size of crystals received with this method was to 63 mm. long, to 400 ct. In the end of 1970-s, in France they began the production of Lenix synthetic emerald. Since 1979 in Japan the company “Kyoto Ceramic Co.” has produced the similar material under the trademark Kyocera synthetic emerald, Inamory synthetic emerald or Crescent vert synthetic emerald. Also in Japan the firm “Seiko” has produced Seiko synthetic emerald or Bijoreve synthetic emerald since 1983. According the same technology Sanyo synthetic emerald or ASIC synthetic emerald was produced in Japan. In Russia, in Novosibirsk, G.V. Bukin has worked out the technology of growing emeralds in the middle of 1970-s. In 1980, it was sold to Thailand, later – to the U.S.A.. These synthetic emeralds receive trade marks Kimberley and empress synthetic emeralds.

Manufacturing of emeralds with the method of hydrothermal synthesis on plate of beryl has been opened in Austria by the Lechleitner Company since 1960: under the trade mark Lechleitner synthetic emerald, emerita or simerald synthetic emerald, on parallel blades of berylsandwich synthetic emerald, as well as on faceted stones with covering layer to 0.5 mm. thick – coated synthetic emerald.In the U.S.A. Chatham synthetic emerald is produced with this method; since 1965 Linde synthetic emerald has been produced with inclusions of phenakite. It appeared at the market under the trademark Symerald synthetic emerald or symerald. Since 1977, in Western Australia Byron synthetic emerald or AGEE-smaragd has been sold; it was grown as transparent crystals to 100 ct. There Pull synthetic emerald was also produced. It was grown on blades of emerald extracted at the Pull mines. Since 1981 in the U.S.A., in New Jersey, Regency synthetic emerald or quintessa synthetic emerald has been produced. In Japan they received AGEE synthetic emerald with the method of hydrothermal synthesis. Since 1983 emerald has been grown in Estonia under the trademark Vasar synthetic emerald or Vasar-emerald. In China synthetic emerald – techyears to get with the method of hydrothermal synthesis.

In 1970, in Novosibirsk, Russia, method of growing of emerald crust through falling of small crystals on blades of beryl was worked out. These brushes consist of small but perfect emerald crystals, and they can be made as big druses. In St Petersburg at the firm “Russkie Samotsvety” this method received commercial usage for producing stones for jewelries. Out of Russia such gem-quality material is known as emeraldonite. Synthesis of hydrothermal emerald, which was begun in Novosibirsk in the early of 1980-s, gives the product under the trademark Novo synthetic emerald. From such emeralds faceted stones up to 15 ct. and more can be made. There was worked out another one technology of synthesis of emeralds – the method of gas-transporting reaction.

Synonyms. Cultured emerald, syn. Chatham synthetic emerald | Gilson synthetic emerald, according P. Gilson Company | Empress synthetic emerald | Emsprit synthetic emerald, Russia, hydrothermal method | Igmerald synthetic emerald, according the first letters of the company-name and the name of material.

Similar Gemstones & Imitations. Witch emerald such stones has similarity as alexandrite, demantoid, chrysolite, dioptase, chrome-diopside, grossular, hiddenite, green sapphire, tourmaline and uvarovite,. High price of emerald leads to a great amount of its imitations. Earlier green fluorite from Namibia was used for such purposes – African beryl. For imitation of Colombian trapiche emeralds, which are full of inclusions, green aventurine quartz sometimes was used. Nowadays such green synthetic materials are popular: synthetic garnets, spinel, emerald, phianite, beryl glass – smaragdolin. Glass with high level of refraction – swarogreen with solidity 2.9, produced by the Austrian firm “Swarovsky”, is used for imitations, as well as a special alloy – smaragdite. Besides, doublets of beryl are popular – usually they are joint with green glue; their trademark is smaryll. An example of such imitation is a triplet from two parts of beryl with green glass between them – tripletine. Sometimes emerald is set up, and rock crystal or glass are set down, all the parts are joint with green cement – the trade mark is soude emerald; triplet from aquamarine-quartz-glass or quartz-glass-quartz with a green part in the center, is called Tecla emerald; and doublet of beryl with synthetic emerald, which is upward, is called gemerald. One more imitation is glass beads filled with small fragments of emerald in oil.

As imitations of emerald also such materials can be used: variscite, green grossular – tsavorite; emerald-demantoidgarnet, Cape emeraldprehnite, lithium emerald – hiddenite, false emeraldfluorite; copper emerald –– dioptase; emerald tourmalinetourmaline, emerald chrysoliteolivine; green quartz, chrysolite, chrysoprase, green plastic, synthetic corundum, green glass.

Synonyms. Imitations-doublets: ~ emerald: aquamarine ~, crystalline ~, Mascot ~, reconstructed ~.

Glass imitations. ~ emerald: Brighton ~, electric ~, endura ~, Hattmann ~, iron ~, Medina ~, scientific ~, Spanish ~.