s
Russian Gemstones Encyclopedia

Vladimir Bukanov. Russian Gemstones Encyclopedia

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

TURQUOISE, GROUP: TURQUOISE, CHALCOSIDERITE, FAUSTITE, WAVELLITE, WARDITE


TURQUOISE group (Türkis—Turquoise—Ѕирюза), (Pliny the Elder 77). Since the 13th cent. she has received the name from Fr. turquoise. This stone from the south slopes of the Al-Mirsah-Kuh Mts., northwest from the Meydän (Maden) village, near Neyshäbür, Iran, found its way to Europe via Turkey. In Egypt, it was called mafkat, after the discovery location; in Ancient Greece and Rome, it was called callais, from “callos” – beautiful; in the Persia – firouse and in Mexico – xihuitl, Aztecs. There are also described rare phosphates: chalcosiderite, faustite, wavellite, wardite, which are often found as isomorphic admixture in turquoise.

Composition & Properties. Phosphate – CuAl6[(OH)2|PO4]4H2O. Triclinic system. Hardness 5-6. Density 2.6-2.9. Cleavage perfect. Fade luster, in polished form – up to glass luster. Turquoise is represented in nature as amorphous cryptocrystalline masses, veined accumulations and nodules up to 10 cm. in cross-section and more; the weight of the biggest nuggets reaches 50 kg. The bigger are such isolations the worse is the quality of turquoise because of mineral admixtures. As crystals, turquoise is found very rare; their size is not more than 3 mm. There are three main types of turquoise according its color. Common turquoise partly looses its color in the process of wearing and becomes more intensively colored after putting it in water. Old turquoise is harder because of its silicification; it is translucent at the edges and stable in color. Young turquoise has bright color when it is just extracted, but it looses its color fast and forever in the air. They classify also semi-turquoise – mild, pale light blue and henwoodite – light blue-greenish massive variety of sphaerolites structure.

According its morphologic properties at deposits, there are four main types of turquoise. Veinleted turquoise fills cracks – both lined and complicated in shape ones. It is the most widespread one. Nodular turquoise exists in nodules of round or lens shape. Reticulated turquoise, or cobweb turquoise is called so because of the pattern of cracks filled with hydroxides of iron, copper, and manganese. Lace-like turquoise, or fancy turquoise, has complicated fine-folded pattern. This variety has transfers to breccia-like turquoise and ingrained turquoise with the trade name turquoise matrix. In reality it is rock filled with veins of insets of turquoise. It is usually used as an ornamental stone. There is also turquoise sinter. Aseparate variety is cretaceous turquoise – a product of secondary metamorphoses. Usually it is mellow, pale colored mass. However, under the quality improvement it is also used in jewelry. As a separate variety, they also classify turquoise pseudomorphs on other minerals, the most often on apatite and fossil bones – odontolite. In all of these varieties jewelry material takes not more than 10% of rough material.

The composition of turquoise is not constant; the most typical admixtures are iron and zinc. Ferro turquoise forms an isomorphic row with chalcosiderite through the varieties of intermediate composition – alumochal-cosiderite and rashleigite. It is accompanied with the strengthening of green tones in the color of turquoise. Its zinc-containing analogue – faustite of apple-green color – also has a row of constant mixing with turquoise. Light blue color of turquoise depends on the content of copper, and light bluish-green or yellowish-green hues in it depend on its hydratation with transfer of iron (Fe2+) admixture to Fe3+. Violet-blue color depends on admixture of strontium up to 5%, and bright grass-green one depends on admixture of V2O3 up to 1%. The color of turquoise can become paler in the sunlight, because of cosmetics or after heating in it’s processing. Archaeological findings and museum expositions demonstrate stability of the color of high-quality turquoise. However, monomineral deposits of turquoise are very rare. Turquoise often contains such mineral admixtures as alunite, and also quartz and opal, which make it harder. In the outer zones of turquoise accumulations there are often met replacing it clay minerals: allophane, halloysite, kaolinite and nontronite. They make turquoise less hard and weaken the intensity of its color giving it greenish tones. Turquoise with high content of quartz and kaolinite has pale whitish spots. Inclusions of chrysocolla or faustite make the color of turquoise brighter. Inclusions of pyrite are very often, more rare – of galena, cuprite and chalcopyrite. Hydroxides of iron, which are produced in the zone of oxidation because of destroying of pyrite, give yellow and yellowish-brownish color to turquoise. Joints of turquoise with malachite, chrysocolla and veins of tenorite are met in pitch copper ore, or Eilat stone from deposits of Israel.

Deposits. Turquoise is formed in low-temperature hydrothermal veins and weathering crusts. It is found in magmatic rocks, sedimentary layers of black slates formation and also in the zones of oxidation of sulfide deposits. In Russia, in the Polar Urals, only small deposits of turquoise are known in the Khrebet Pay-Khey, along the Kara River; they were discovered in the early of 1980-s. Industrial deposits of turquoise are in Uzbekistan. They are linked mainly with the zones of splintering in black band-carbonate-silica schists. In the Sultan Uiz-Dag deposit extraction of turquoise was opened in the 1st cent. A.D. Nowadays, they exploit more than 30 deposits in Qyzylqum (Kyzyl-Kum) Desert, including those in the Bukantau Mts. – the deposits Ayakashi and Jaman-Kaskyr; at the Tamdytau Ridge – the Taskazgan deposit and other with the volume of extracted rough material up to 14 gm./m.3. In the Auminzatau Mts., there is the Auminza deposit with the volume of extracted rough material up to 25 gm./m.3. It is typical for it bright grass-green color of turquoise, which depends on admixture of V2O3 up to 1%. In Qoraqalpoqhiston, at the Sultan Uiz-Dag Ridge, there are the deposits Tebin-Bulak and Sultan Uiz-Dag. In the Toshkent (Tashkent) Region, on the slope of the Kuraminskiy Ridge, to the southwest from Angren, there are the deposits Ak-Turpak and Ungurlikan with the volume of extracted rough material up to 95 gm./m.3 and others. In the region of Olmaliq (Almalyk), on the northern slope of the Kuraminskiy Ridge, there is the copper Kal’makyrskoye deposit with numerous ancient turquoise mines. In North Tadzhikistan, to the north-east from Khujand (form. Leninabad), at the southern spurs of the Kuraminskiy Ridge, there is the large Biruzakan deposit; and to the south from Isfara, in the northern spurs of the Turkestan Ridge, there is the Samarkandyk deposit. In South Kazakhstan, in the Karatau Mts., there are the deposits Aksumbe and Sarysay; and in North Kazakhstan, in the region of Maikain, there is the Zhilandy deposit with violet-blue turquoise, which color depends on admixture of strontium up to 5%. Quite often turquoise are linked with the zones of oxidation of deposits: Kalmykar, in Uzbekistan; in Georgia — Madneuli, with veins up to 1 cm. thick; in Armenia – Tekhut, with the size of accumulations up to 0.5 m.; in Azerbaijan – Kharhana and Karadag; in Bulgaria, in the Rodopy Mts. – Spakhievo, region of Khaskovo; in Poland – Jordanów Šlàski. In England, in the Cornwall, they found crystals of rashleigite similar to turquoise at the St Austelle deposit and others. In France, turquoise has been found as an alteration product of amblygonite in the Montebras quarry, Creuse Dept.

In North Iran, turquoise has been being extracted since 2100 B.C. The best sky-blue turquoise angushtari (Pers.) is extracted there in the region of Khorasan, at the Meydän (Madan) (in Pers., “the mine”), near Neyshäbür area. Nowadays, the extraction is held from underground mines; the biggest isolations of turquoise are not more than 5x3.5 cm. In that province, in the northern part of the desert Dasht-e-Kavïr, near Dämghän, there is the Kue Zar deposit, and to the north from Tebes – the Yab-Ak deposit. In the north, at spurs of the Köpetdag Gershi (Mts.), there is the Kuchanskoye deposit of green turquoise, and Mashhad locality. In the Mäzandarän Prov., deposits of turquoise have been being extracted since 1970-s. The average volume if extraction is about 50 ton per year. Small deposits of turquoise are known also in Afghanistan. In the western part of Pakistan, turquoise is extracted in the Chagay Mts. In China, deposits of turquoise are known more than 3000 years. Recently, light blue-greenish turquoise is extracted from large ores deposit in concretions up to 100 kg., e.g. at the Yuangaisi mine, Hunan Prov. Turquoise from the Shanxi Prov. is from the zone of oxidation; it is represented with nodules of different hue of light blue, up to 8 cm. in size. In that province there is also a deposit of turquoise near Shanyang. In the Hubei Prov., the deposits of turquoise Yungsang and Tjushang are exploited; and in the Wodang Mts. also where it is called wood green stone. Turquoise comes to the market from the Sichuan Prov., from Heilongjiang and Tibet as well. Pale color and rather small size of isolations are typical for Chinese turquoise. In Tibet, they highly estimate green turquoise, which is supposed to be a national stone of China. In Mongolia, a large deposit of turquoise was discovered between the rivers Selenga and Orkhon, in sericite-quartz metasomatic rocks of the copper-molybdenum Erdenetiin-Obo mine.

In Egypt, deposits of turquoise are situated on the space of 1000 km2 along the south-west bank line of the Suez Channel on the Sinai Penin. Near Vadi Magkhare (now Cave Valley), there are second after Iranian ones turquoise mines – “King Solomon Mines”, which have been known since the 4th millennium B.C. They are linked with weathering crusts of black band-silica schists and were reopened in 1762. They are mainly worked out now, but some mines are still exploited. Sinai turquoise is usually light blue-greenish with small light blue spots. In the same region, in Israel, to the north from Eilat, in copper sandstones, they extract mixture of turquoise with chrysocolla and malachiteEilat stone or eilatite. In Africa, the Got turquoise deposit is exploited in Ethiopia, near Angolla. There is information about small deposits of turquoise in Kenya, Namibia, Tanzania, Saudi Arabia, Sudan and Senegal.

In South Australia, in the Victoria State, turquoise is the only gemstone, which is extracted in industrial scale. Low-quality turquoise is discovered in New South Wales, near Bodalla. Near Narum it was found in stalactite-like forms and clusters of small pale light blue crystals in cavities of turquoise veins. In Northern Territories, 250 km. to the north-east from Alice Springs, at the Tosca mine, they extracted pale light blue and green turquoise of ornamental quality. In the north-western part of Queensland they discovered Dayboro deposit light blue Australian turquoise close to variscite in its composition.

In the U.S.A., aboriginal peoples knew turquoise long before the Conquist. There is a large turquoise region here: from the south-western states to Mexico. The best turquoise is extracted in Colorado, at the deposits King mine, Hall mine and at several others – Colorado turquoise. Among the most important mines there are: Creede, Villa Grove, and Saint Kelvin. In New Mexico, it is found at the deposits Hachita, Burro Mountains, Eureka, and Los Cerillos. In Arizona, light blue blocks of cobweb turquoise are found at the mines: Castle Dome, Morenci, and Bisbee, to the north-east from Kingman. At the Bisbee deposit, it is bright light blue, and in the region of Yarillo it has dark hue of light blue color, but sometimes it looses its color. In 1940-1950-s, in Nevada, there were some 40 mines, among them the most important one was the Cortez deposit, Lander Co., where they found turquoise veins with broadened places up to 10 cm. thick; there also, near Battle Mountain, nuggets of turquoise up to 80 kg. were extracted. In California, St Bernardo Co., mainly small deposits were exploited in the region of the Turquoise Mts. In Virginia, crystals of turquoise of bright blue and greenish-blue color, up to 3 mm. in size, were found at the Lynch Station deposit and at the manganese Old Bishop mine, Campbell Co. They form crusts and bunch-like clusters in cracks of quartz veins and in bedding schists. The biggest crystal found there in 1912 was 4x7 cm. in size. It is kept in the collection of the Museum of Virginian University. Deposits with crystal turquoise were discovered also in Belgium – in Ardennes Mts., and in Great Britain – on the Cornwall Penin.. In Mexico, such deposit is near Zacatecas; and at the Cumombabi deposit, Sonora, there are turquoise pseudomorphs after apatite crystals. In the same state, turquoise nodules up to 38 cm. at the La Carido mine, near Cananea, were found. In South America, turquoise is extracted from time to time in Brazil, in the Bahia State, and also in Peru and Chile – at the copper Chukikamata deposit, near Antofagasta. Findings of turquoise are known on Cuba – at the Hierro deposit, Pinar del Río Dist.

Unique finds. In the U.S.A., large accumulations of turquoise were discovered in Nevada, at the mine near Battle Mt. in 1954-1956; two nuggets were found there. The weight of the first one was 60.8 kg., of the second one – 80 kg. There, at the Cortez deposit they found nuggets up to 2 kg. In New Mexico, at the Hachita deposit, a unique block of turquoise was extracted; it had the weight of 50 kg. They made the biggest carving work of art from it. In Colorado, at the La Hara deposit, a nodule of reticulated turquoise, 17.3-8.3 cm. in size was found; it was evaluated in $1000. In Tadzhikistan, at the Biruzakan deposit, they found a lens of turquoise 4.5 kg.; and in Uzbekistan, at the Ayakshi deposit – a nugget 40 kg.

Synonyms. Turquoise – Agaphite (agapite), after the researcher in Iranian turquoise D. Agaphy | Animaltürkis (beintürkis), Germ., syn. odontolite | Arabi, Pers., low-grade | Arizonite | Calchihuitl (chachiguit, chalchite, chalchuit), Mexican, after the discovery location at the Chalchihuitl Mt., New Mexico, the U.S.A. | Callait | Duklij, Apache name for the turquoise in New Mexico, the U.S.A. | Edisonite – multicolored because of inclusions of turquoise | Henwoodite, after the Engl. mining engineer W. Henwood, discredit IMA | Turkish jade | Johnite | Kalait, Germ. | Kallainit, Germ. | Kallais, Germ. | Kallait, Germ. | Odontolite, from Gk. “odontos” – tooth and “litos” – stone | Persian smaragdus | Azure spar | ~ stone: Arabian ~, Aztec ~, celestial ~, new ~, old ~, shortened, from old stone turquoise; Sinai ~, Turkey ~ | Türkis | ~ turquoise: African ~, South African ~, from the region of Kimberley, South Africa; Alexandrian ~, after the discovery location on the Sinai Penin., Egypt; American ~, after the discovery location in the U.S.A.; Arizonian ~, from the Arizona State, the U.S.A.; Australian ~, Californian ~, from California, the U.S.A.; Chinese ~, after the discovery location; Egyptian ~, after the discovery location on the Sinai Penin. in Egypt; ferrous ~, after content; glassy, Mashhed ~, after the discovery location near Mashhed, the north of Iran; Mexican ~, from Mexico or from New Mexico, the U.S.A.; Nevada ~, from Nevada, the U.S.A.; oriental ~, after the discovery location in Iran; Persian ~, from Iran; Sinai ~, after the discovery location on the Sinai Penin., Egypt; stone ~, after its hardness; old stone ~, high-quality; Tibetan ~, from Tibet; Turkestan ~, from deposits of Uzbekistan. | Xihuitl, Mexican.

Turquoise matrix – Turtledove back | Matrix stone | New stone turquoise | Mountain turquoise.

Quality improvement. Turquoise can “get old” – it depends on the influence of fat and chemical substances, especially bioorganic ones, because turquoise is porous. That’s why there is the risk of its pollution; it is necessary to improve it. There is an opinion that up to 60% turquoise at the world market is improved. To take away fade luster, they often impregnate turquoise with animal fat, wax or paraffin – waxed turquoise, but more often with different resins. In that case, its porosity becomes less, and the intensity of color – more. To strengthen color in the outer zones of turquoise up to bright light blue, they process it with 5-30% water solution of copper phosphate under the temperature of 90-180°C and under the pressure of 200 atm. They use also aniline colors or organic polymer film on the pickled surface of the stone. Chalk-like and porous turquoise is impregnated with colloid silica or with glue – ceocrin, which gives it brightness, additional hardness and better ability to be polished. An example of reform turquoise because of its impregnation with plastics is the most part of Arizona turquoise from the U.S.A. The same method is used to improve turquoise from the Tekhut deposit in Armenia. The addition of colors gives light blue hue, which is equal to gem-quality turquoise color. It is so called reconstructed, or stabilized turquoise. If these stones will be heated to the temperature of 250˚ C blue pieces become green.

Cut Gems. In the countries of Turkish East turquoise is a national stone. In the ancient times it was called maycat, taking it for malachite. That’s why there was not the name turquoise in ancient lapidaries. It is used in glyptic, for small stone carving and beads, it is cut in cabochons for jewelry insets. In Ancient Greece, in the temple of Apollo in Delphs, which was supposed to be the center of the earth by ancient Greeks, according the lends there was a cone-shaped block of turquoise “Omphalos” – the hub of the universe, from Gk. “phalos”. In the Armory Museum Kreml., Moscow, there is the throne of the Tsar Boris Godunov, which has been made in Iran and was gifted by the Shah Abbas I in 1604. In its rich incrustation with precious stones turquoise takes a special place. In the “Kazan’ Cap” of the Tsar Ivan the Terrible, made in the eastern style, also large cabochons of turquoise dominate. Eastern armament and horse harness usually were incrusted with light blue insets of victory stone. In the treasury house of Iran there is a collection of hookahs decorated with turquoise, and the tiara of the wife of the Shah Pehlevi, in which big insets of turquoise is neighbouring with brilliants. There is also the amulet of Nadir Shah in the shape of the heart from unique turquoise with engraved verses from the Koran. Among the works of Western masters, we should mention the diadem of Maria Louise – a wedding gift of Napoleon to his bride made in 1801. At first, it was decorated with 79 emeralds and almost 1000 of brilliants. In 1952, emeralds were replaced with Persian turquoise. The diadem is kept in the Smiths. Inst., Wash. now. Ritual masks of Aztecs of Mexico incrusted with turquoise are really wonderful.

Legends. Turquoise serves in the East as a military talisman – Victory stone, because of its Persian name: “firuz” – victorios. The greatest popularity of this stone was connected with the Moslem world. Turquoise is also known as a love stone. Greeks kept it as a stone of the goddess Aphrodite, Romans – as a stone of Venus, that’s why many peoples chose turquoise for wedding rings and wedding suits of brides. As a love talisman, it doesn’t bear faithlessness and as if it becomes green when a spouse is not faithful. As an amulet, turquoise helps to avoid insomnia, dangers and gives long life. Astrologers take it for a lucky stone for those, who were born under the signs of Taurus, Capricorn and Sagittarius. Turquoise is regarded as a national symbol of such countries as Iran (Persia) and Turkey; in the U.S.A., it is an official stone of the states of Arizona, Nevada and New Mexico.

Synthesis. At first, synthetic turquoise was received in 1927. Its synthesis is produced from different mixtures, including copper Sulfate group and aluminum with AlOH and N2HPO4·12H2O; or CuCO3 with AlOH and H3PO4 under the pressure with heating to the temperature more than 100°C. In Switzerland, Gilson synthetic turquoise has been being produced in industrial scale by the firm of P. Gilson since 1972. In its properties – hardness 5, density 2.7 – and characteristics in the X-rays measurements it is equal to natural turquoise, but because of admixtures of artificial materials it is kept as an imitation. They produce synthetic turquoise of two types: “farakh” – intensive blue and “Cleopatra” – moderate blue. It is sold for 1/5 of a price of genuine turquoise. At the same time, there is synthetic Linde turquoise at the market. Such type of synthetic turquoise is produced in Russia. In the place of turquoise also synthetic aurichalcite is used in Russia.

Similar Gemstones & Imitations. Gemstones similar to turquoise are: alunite, amazonite, variscite, hemimorphite, lazulite, prosopite – colorless turquoise, pectolite, blue pectolite, serpentine, smithsonite, francolite – Laplandian turquoise, chrysocolla, ceruleite, shattuckite; as well as isomorphic with it wavellite, wardite, faustite, chalcosiderite and alumochalcosiderite.

In Ancient Egypt, before 2000 B.C., for imitation of turquoise they used glass colored with copper and glazed ceramic. Glass beads of light blue color were found in the tomb of Tutankhamen (1350 B.C.). Nowadays, they use such imitations: 1) low-quality natural turquoise improved with coloring and impregnation; 2) natural materials and rocks similar to turquoise in their genuine form or after some processing; 3) artificial materials similar to turquoise in color; 4) synthetic analogues of turquoise.

To the first group of imitations we should classify reconstructed turquoise received from crumbs with the method of its pressing together with artificial plastificizer and sometimes also with coloring materials. To the second group we should classify not only those, which were mentioned earlier, but also colored alabaster, howlite, dolomite, calcite, magnesite, chalcedony, and also odontolite, or bone turquoise, replaced with vivianite and fine-crystalline apatitecollophane. Under the name of Chinese turquoise a mixture of steatite and sepiolite, calcite and quartz colored in light blue is sold; as well as greenish jasper from China. In the U.S.A., imitation from colored clay material is known – new turquoise. To the third group of artificial composite materials we should classify the following ones. Pressed aluminum orthophosphate – synthetic berlinite colored with copper oleathe and known under the trade name Vienna turquoise. Baric sulfate group with admixture of artificial resin or another binding material is also used. Another artificial material, which was received in Germany in 1957, was a mixture of copper phosphate with synthetic bayerite – Hamburg turquoise, neolithe, or rese-turquoise, identical in composition to gibbsite. Such materials are also imitations of turquoise produced by the firms “Sinto Gem Co” and “Adko Products” – Sinto synthetic turquoise and Adko synthetic turquoise. As additional components in these imitations, crystals of pyrite and hematite exist. Popular imitations have been glass and ceramic (since the 16th cent. B.C.) and porcelain (since the 12th cent. A.D.). Nowadays, they use colored plastic with the pattern of cobweb turquoise for this purpose. To the first group of synthetic analogues of turquoise we should classify materials described in the part on synthesis.

Synonyms. Turquite | ~ turquoise: compound ~, genuine ~, reconstructed ~, Vienna ~.

Chalcosiderite (Chalkcosiderit—Chalkcosidérite—’алькосидерит) (Ullmann, J.C., 1814). The name reflects its composition: Gk. “chalcos” – copper and “sideros” – iron. Phosphate – CuFe63+[(OH)2|PO4]44H2O, triclinic system. Hardness 4.5. Density 3.2. Cleavage in two direction. Glass luster. Usually massive, crystalline, granular, also in short prismatic crystals and as crust. Color dark green, transparent to translucent. In Uzbekistan, chalcosiderite at turquoise deposits of the desert Kyzyl Kum is found, and in the Bukantau Mts., also at the Ayakshi deposit and at others. In the U.S.A. at the Bisbee deposit, Arizona, it was found; also in New Mexico at the Phelps Dodge mine, Grant Co.

Faustite (Faustit—Faustite—‘oстит) (Erd R.C. et al., 1953), after George Tobias Faust (1908-1985), Amer. mineralogist and geologist. Phosphate – ZnAl6[(OH)2|PO4]4•5H2O, triclinic system. Hardness 5. Density 2.9. Luster waxy to dull. In microcrystalline crusts and massive, apple green, opaque. In Uzbekistan, faustite in venilets filling altered shales in the Bukantau Mts. is found, also at the Jaman-Kaskyr deposit and at the Kal’mykyr deposit, Olmaliq (Almalyk) region. In Armenia, it is classified as a variety of zinc-containing turquoise at the Tekhut deposit. In the U.S.A., faustite in clusters with turquoise at the King copper deposit, Nevada, and at the Kelly Bank mine, Virginia, were found. It was also found at turquoise deposits of Iran and Mexico.

SynonymsEmerald turquoise | Zinc turquoise.

Wavellite (Wavellit—Wavellite—¬авеллит) (Babbington, W. 1805), after William Wawell (d. 1829), Engl. physicist, who discovered the mineral. Phosphate – Al3[(OH)3|(PO4)2]•5H2O, orthorhombic system. Hardness 3.5-4. Density 2.4. Cleavage in two direction. Glass luster, oily to pearly. Usually white, also pale green to bright green, yellow, yellow-green, brown, also blue, black, and colorless; transparent to translucent. Wavellite was discovered in Russia in the Polar Urals as sphaerolites, up to 2 cm. in size, on the Silova-Yakha River at the Khrebet Pay-Khey; and at the Middle Urals, in the region of the Upper Sysert. In the Eastern Sayan Mts., it was found at the Telekskoye deposit; and in Transbaikalia – at the Dmitrievskiy mine. In Central Kazakhstan, light blue-green sphaerolites of wavellite, at the deposits Aqshataü and Sarysay, near Zhezkazgan, were found. In France, wavellite together with turquoise come in the composition of rock at the Montebras quarry, Creuse Dépt. This rock – callainite of emerald-green color with wax luster – is used as an ornamental stone. Beautiful findings of wavellite, available for further processing, were made in Czech Rep., at the Çernovice deposit. In Romania, at the Cavnic deposit, wavellite forms radial-fibrous aggregates of yellowish or greenish hue. These well-formed crystals sometimes are transparent; they were called Capnikite earlier. In Great Britain, findings of wavellite are known at the High Dawn mine, Devon. In Germany, after the discovery locality near Langenstriegis, Saxony, wavellite is known under the name of striegisan; also as in vein filling up to 10 cm. thick at Horscha, near Nieski, Lusatia. In Australia, findings of wavellite in clusters with turquoise are also known. In the U.S.A., wavellite is found in Arkansas as sphaerolite aggregates up to 2.5 cm. of light hue of light blue color; also green color – at the Dug Hill and Moldin Mt.; and in Virginia – at the Kelly Bank mine. In Pennsylvania, in Central Appalachians Mts., in the Holy Springs region wavellite is represented with its light blue-greenish variety – fischerite. In Brazil, in Minas Gerais, wavellite was discovered in the Oro Preto Region as crusts in fissures in lidites; and in Bolivia – in the Llialliagua region, Potosí Dept.

Synonym Fischerite, after Fisher de Waldheim, Russ. scientist.

Wardite (Wardit—Wardite—¬ардит) (Davison, J.M., 1896), after Henry Augustus Ward (1834-1906), Professor of Natural Science, Univ. of Rochester, New York, mineral collector and dealer; founder of the Ward’s Natural Science Establishment. Phosphate – NaAl3[(OH)4|(PO4)2]•2H2O, tetragonal system. Hardness 5. Density 2.8. Cleavage perfect in one direction. Luster vitreous to oily. Colorless, white, pale blue to green, mainly translucent. In bipyramidal crystals up to 3 cm., also as granular aggregates and sphaerolites. Wardite together with turquoise is found in Uzbekistan, at the Kal’makyr deposit. In France, gem-quality wardite–soumansite at the Soumance deposit, Creuse Dépt., is known. In the U.S.A., there is the Cedar Valley deposit, Utah, where wardite is found together with variscite; and in New Hampshire, as crystals up to 2 cm at the Palermo No.1 mine, Grafton Co., is represented. In Canada its findings are known with lazulite in fine crystals up to 3 cm at the deposits of Big Fish River, Blow River, and Rapid Creek, Yukon Territory. In Brazil, findings of wardite at Laranjeiras deposit, Minas Gerais, also at Pedra Lavrada, Paraíba State, were made.

Search